An outcome measure is the result of a test that is used to objectively determine the baseline function of a patient at the beginning of treatment. Once treatment has commenced, the same instrument can be used to determine progress and treatment efficacy. With the move towards Evidence Based Practice (EBP) in the health sciences, objective measures of outcome are important to provide credible and reliable justification for treatment. The instrument should also be convenient to apply for the therapist and comfortable for the patient.
Reliability, Validity and Responsiveness
The outcome measure selected should have been shown to test the particular aspect of function that it is reported to test (validity) and the results should be the same (or similar) regardless of who administers the test or when it is administered (reliability). Finally, the test or scale should be able to test change over time (responsiveness). The Chartered Society of Physiotherapists in the United Kingdom makes it clear that standardised outcome measures should be used routinely in normal practice:
"Taking account of the patient’s problems, a published, standardised, valid, reliable and responsive outcome measure is used to evaluate the change in the patient’s health status" (Core standards of physiotherapy practice, 2005).
Some outcome measures have been statistically tested to determine their validity and reliability and it must be noted that some are more valid and reliable than others. Analysis should also be performed to determine if the change in score on the test is a result of the intervention (treatment), or not.
Guide to Selecting Outcome Measures
- Orthopaedic Scores: a free outcome measure calculation service for certain orthopaedic OMs.
- Regis University site for outcomes information: This is an excellent site that includes analysis of practice forms, outcome measures and the evidence for a variety of clinical topics. At the bottom of the page there is the “health assessment outcomes indicators”, an 80+ page document that gives an overview of MANY outcomes tools.
- Rehabilitation measures database: Developed to help clinicians and researchers identify reliable and valid instruments used to assess patient outcomes during all phases of rehabilitation.
- Patient-Reported Health Instruments: Includes over 8,600 records with keyword search capability.
- Clinical measurement instruments: from Centre for Evidence Based Physiotherapy.
- PROQOLID Quality of life instruments database: Lists 1,000 Patient Reported Outcomes questionnaires and provides detailed information on over 300 either generic or specific measures.
- StrokeEngine Assess: Provides information on outcome measures related to Stroke.
- CEBP: Centre for Evidence Based Physiotherapy: Provides an extensive database of physiotherapy outcome measures.
- The Neurology Section: Recommendations for outcome measures used in neurological clinical practice, research and education.
- Article: Hefford et al. Outcome measurement in clinical practice: practical and theoretical issues for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires. Provides a detailed description of HRQOL measures, how to choose outcome measures, and what psychometric properties to look out for.
Pages in category "Outcome Measures"
The following 98 pages are in this category, out of 98 total.
- Fatigue Severity Scale
- Fear‐Avoidance Belief Questionnaire
- Feasibility of Applying a Simple Method to Quantify Clinical Experience: A Case Report
- Foot and Ankle Ability Measure
- Foot and Ankle Disability Index
- Foot Function Index (FFI)
- Foot Posture Index (FP1-6)
- Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery after Stroke
- Functional Ability Description Tool
- Functional Gait Assessment
- Functional Independence Measure (FIM)
- Functional Movement Screen (FMS)
- Functional Reach Test (FRT)
- Pain Catastrophizing Scale
- Parkinson's Disease - Outcome Measures
- Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I)
- Patient Global Impression of Severity (PGI-S)
- Pediatric Balance Scale
- Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI - 20)
- Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ - 7)
- Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire (PGQ)
- Pirani Score
- Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke
- PRWE Score