Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire

Original Editor - Oluwasegun Ajenipa Top Contributors - Oluwasegun Ajenipa

Introduction[edit | edit source]

Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire(ERI)The ERI is a standardised questionnaire designed for self-administration. It suggests that work-related stress may occur when there is a disparity between the effort put into work and the rewards received, which could result in various adverse physical and mental health outcomes.[1]

The ERI questionnaire measures effort, reward, and over-commitment to determine the presence of ERI and over-commitment. It was developed by German medical sociologist Siegrist in 1996.[2]

There are currently two versions of this questionnaire: a long version with 22 items and a short version with 16 items. The questionnaire has changed over time, with the most recent update occurring in 2012. [3]

Long Version

  • The long version of the questionnaire is a 22-item scale consisting of effort, reward and over-commitment.
  • Five or six items measure the work effort scale in demanding aspects of the environment.
  • The reward scale is measured by ten items.
  • Over-commitment scale is measured by six items.
  • Participants provide data using a four-point Likert scale (strongly disagree,

disagree, agree, strongly agree).

  • It can be accessed Here

Short Version

  • The short version of the questionnaire is a 16-item 4-point Likert scale.
  • 3 items measure the effort scale
  • 7 items measure the reward scale
  • 6 items measure the over-commitment scale
  • The shorter questionnaire version is more applicable in large-scale epidemiologic investigations.[3]
  • It can be accessed Here

Objective[edit | edit source]

The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire is an instrument that measures a psychosocial work environment characterized by high efforts and low rewards that can have negative effects on health and well-being.

Intended Population[edit | edit source]

The general population with an occupation.

Method of use[edit | edit source]

It is a self-administered questionnaire.

Measurement[edit | edit source]

There are various methods to measure ERI (Effort-Reward Imbalance) by analyzing the collected data. However, the most crucial components of the ERI model are the experiences and perceptions of the working individuals.[4] Effort on the ERI questionnaire is measured by five or six items that refer to the demanding aspects of the work environment. The higher the score, the more effort is assumed to be experienced by the subject during work. Reward is measured by ten 4-point Likert-scaled items. The lower the score, the fewer occupational rewards the person is supposed to receive. Over-commitment is measured by six items (items OC1-OC6), and they are rated from 1(low) to 4(high over-commitment). The higher the score, the more over-commitment is experienced by the subject during work.[5]

Psychometric Properties[edit | edit source]

Both the long and short versions of the ERI questionnaire demonstrate satisfactory internal consistency, with the long version having a Cronbach's α of >0.70, and the short version having a Cronbach's α of >0.80.[4][6]The long version of the ERI questionnaire has satisfactory convergent validity and sensitivity to change over time while the short version has discriminant validity. [1]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Siegrist J, Li J. Associations of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Components of Work Stress with Health: A Systematic Review of Evidence on the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016 Apr 19;13(4):432
  2. Ren C, Li X, Yao X, Pi Z, Qi S. Psychometric Properties of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire for Teachers (Teacher ERIQ). Frontiers in Psychology. 2019 Sep 12;10.‌
  3. 3.0 3.1 Stanhope J. Effort–Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Occupational Medicine. 2017 May 29 [cited 2019 Apr 12];67(4):314–5. Available from: http://www.mentalhealthpromotion.net/resources/eriquest_psychometric_information.pdf
  4. 4.0 4.1 Rantanen J, Feldt T, Hyvönen K, Kinnunen U, Mäkikangas A. Factorial validity of the effort–reward imbalance scale: evidence from multi-sample and three-wave follow-up studies. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2012 Jul 24;86(6):645–56.
  5. Msaouel P, Keramaris NC, Apostolopoulos AP, Syrmos N, Kappos T, Tasoulis A, et al. The Effort‐reward Imbalance Questionnaire in Greek: Translation, Validation and Psychometric Properties in Health Professionals. Journal of Occupational Health. 2012 Mar;54(2):119–30.
  6. Törnroos M, Keltikangas-Järvinen L, Hintsa T, Hakulinen C, Pulkki-Råback L, Jokela M, et al. Longitudinal measurement invariance of the effort-reward imbalance scales in the Young Finns study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2014 Feb 11;71(4):28994.‌