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- The EQ-5D is a well-established and widely-used generic instrument for assessing health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study suggests that the EQ-5D-3L could be an excellent tool for quality of life assessment in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment.
- Designed as a self-completion questionnaire, it embodies two components, a health state description followed by an evaluation.
- The respondent classifies his or her prevailing state of health by selecting one of three different levels of problem severity within each of five health domains.
- The EQ-5D is a well-known and widely used health status instrument.
- It was developed by the EuroQol Group in the 1980s to provide a concise, generic instrument that could be used to measure, compare and value health status across disease areas.
Method of Use
Designed as a self-completion questionnaire, it embodies two components, a health state description followed by an evaluation.
- Health State: The respondent classifies his or her prevailing state of health by selecting one of three different levels of problem severity within each of five health domains. The levels are none, moderate and severe/extreme (coded 1 through 3, respectively), whilst the domains are mobility, capacity for self-care, conduct of usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression, ordered as such.
- Evaluation: The respondent then evaluates his or her health using a visual analogue scale (VAS). This is a vertical, calibrated, line, bounded at 0 ("worst imaginable health state") and at 100 ("best imaginable health state"). Respondents indicate where they perceive their present state of health to lie, relative to these anchors.
The EQ-5D was first developed in 1990 and is the world’s most widely applied generic multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUI).
- The original descriptive system has five dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression), each with three response levels (EQ-5D-3L).
- A five response level version has been developed (EQ-5D-5L) in an effort to reduce the potential for ceiling effects and to address concerns about the sensitivity of the 3L version for detecting clinically important differences in health-related quality of life (HrQOL).
- Emerging evidence suggests the newer 5-level version does have improved measurement properties including feasibility, ceiling effects, sensitivity and convergent validity and therefore may be more useful for measuring population-level health status.
- A new off-the-shelf scoring algorithm estimated from a sample of the UK adult general population is now available for this version.
- Pérez-Ros P, Martínez-Arnau FM. EQ-5D-3L for Assessing Quality of Life in Older Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairment. Life. 2020 Jul;10(7):100.
- Whynes DK, Tombola Group. Correspondence between EQ-5D health state classifications and EQ VAS scores. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2008 Dec 1;6(1):94.Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2588564/ (last accessed 10.6.20)
- Devlin NJ, Brooks R. EQ-5D and the EuroQol group: past, present and future. Applied health economics and health policy. 2017 Apr 1;15(2):127-37.Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5343080/ (last accessed 10.6.2020)
- McCaffrey N, Kaambwa B, Currow DC, Ratcliffe J. Health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D–5L: South Australian population norms. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2016 Dec;14(1):133. Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5028927/ (last accessed 10.6.2020)
- EuroQol Research FoundationExplaining the EQ 5D in about two-and-a-half minutes. Available fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qhZ6goeTSLI