30 Seconds Sit To Stand Test
Objective[edit | edit source]
The 30 Second Sit to Stand Test is also known as 30 Second Chair Stand Test (30CST), was initially designed for testing leg strength and endurance in older adults. It is part of the Fullerton Functional Fitness Test Battery. This test was developed to overcome the floor effect of the five or ten repetition sit to stand test in older adults. There is also some consideration for its use as a physical performance test in younger adult and athletic populations, but further investigation may be necessary.
Intended Population[edit | edit source]
- Adults 18-64 years
- Older adults and geriatric care (65 years and above)
- People with osteoarthritis
Method of Use[edit | edit source]
- The 30-Second Chair Test is administered using a folding chair without arms, with seat height of 17 inches (43.2 cm). The chair, with rubber tips on the legs, is placed against a wall to prevent it from moving.
- The participant is seated in the middle of the chair, back straight; feet approximately a shoulder width apart and placed on the floor at an angle slightly back from the knees, with one foot slightly in front of the other to help maintain balance. Arms are crossed at the wrists and held against the chest.
- Demonstrate the task both slowly and quickly.
- Have the patient practice a repetition or two before completing the test.
- If a patient must use their arms to complete the test they are scored 0.
- The participant is encouraged to complete as many full stands as possible within 30 seconds. The participant is instructed to fully sit between each stand.
- While monitoring the participant’s performance to ensure proper form, the tester silently counts the completion of each correct stand. The score is the total number of stands within 30 seconds (more than halfway up at the end of 30 seconds counts as a full stand). Incorrectly executed stands are not counted.
- The 30-second chair stand involves recording the number of stands a person can complete in 30 seconds rather then the amount of time it takes to complete a pre-determined number of repetitions. That way, it is possible to assess a wide variety of ability levels with scores ranging from 0 for those who can not complete 1 stand to greater then 20 for more fit individuals.
Chair stand – Number of stands by age group[edit | edit source]
A below average number of stands for the patient’s age group indicates a high risk of falls.
WOMEN[edit | edit source]
Age group (years) Figures represent: Below Average; Average; Above Average
- 60 – 64: < 12; 12 – 17; >17
- 65 – 69: < 11; 11 – 16; >16
- 70 – 74: < 10; 10 – 15; >15
- 75 – 79: < 10; 10 – 15; >15
- 80 – 84: < 9; 9 – 14; >14
- 85 – 89: < 8; 8 – 13; >13
- 90 – 94: < 4; 4 – 11; >11
MEN[edit | edit source]
Age group (years) Below Average Average Above Average
- 60 – 64: < 14; 14 – 19; >19
- 65 – 69: < 12; 12 – 18; >18
- 70 – 74: < 12; 12 – 17; >17
- 75 – 79: < 11; 11 – 17; >17
- 80 – 84: < 10; 10 – 15; >15
- 85 – 89: < 8; 8 – 14; >14
- 90 – 94: < 7; 7 – 12; >12
Evidence[edit | edit source]
Community-dwelling Elderly Adults[edit | edit source]
Test/ Retest Reliability in Community-dwelling Elderly
- Excellent test-retest reliability total number of participants: r = 0.89 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.79-0.93]
Inter-rater/Intra-rater Reliability in Community-dwelling Elderly
A pilot study using a subsample of 15 participants shows excellent interrater reliability: r = 0.95 (95% CI = 0.84-0.97)
Criterion Validity: Predictive /Concurrent
- Excellent criterion validity of the chair stand compared to weight adjusted leg press performance for all participants: r = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.85
- Excellent criterion validity of the chair stand compared to weight adjusted leg press performance of men: r = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.88
- Excellent criterion validity of the chair stand compared to weight adjusted leg performance of women: r = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53-0.84
Osteoarthritis[edit | edit source]
Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) in Hip Osteoarthritis
- SEM= 1.27 
Test/Retest Reliability in Hip and Knee OA
- Established test-retest reliability between two administrations of the test on the same day by the same rater at three time points over 15 weeks in 40 patients awaiting total hip or knee replacement. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (1,1) values ranged from 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-0.98) to 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99). 
Interrater/Intrarater Reliability in Hip and Knee OA
- Established inter-rater reliability between two administrations of the same test by two different raters on the same day. Reliability was assessed at three time points over 15 weeks in 42 patients awaiting total hip or knee replacement. ICC (1,1) ranged from 0.93 (95% CI 0.87-0.96) to 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-0.99). 
Lower Limb Joint Replacement
Construct Validity in OA Individuals Awaiting Joint Replacement of the Hip or Knee
- Excellent correlation to the 50 ft. walk test: ICC = -0.64(95% CI = -0.75 to -0.49)
- Poor correlation to the Patient Specific Function Scale (PSFS): ICC = 0.26 (95% CI 0.04-0.45)
- Adequate correlation to the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) Physical Function (SF-36 PF): ICC = 0.39 (95% CI 0.19-0.56)
- Adequate correlation to the SF-36 Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS): ICC = 0.35 (0.14-0.53)
- Excellent correlation to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC): ICC = -0.62 (95% CI -0.74 to -0.47)
- Adequate correlation to the SF-36 Mental Health (SF-36 MH): ICC = 0.33 (95% CI 0.12-0.51) 
Responsiveness in OA Individuals Awaiting Joint Replacement of the Hip or Knee
- Significantly higher scores for individuals who did not ambulate with gait aide compared to individuals who did ambulate with gait aid: p = 0.00, Effect size = 0.64 (95% CI 0.32-0.95)
- Standardized Response Mean (SRM) = 0.84 (95% CI 0.61-1.07)
- Guyatt’s Responsiveness Index (GRI) = 0.98 (95% CI 0.73-1.22) 
Hemodialysis Patients[edit | edit source]
- The STS-30 demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC > 0.90)
- There was significant strong correlation between STS-30 with exercise capacity (r = 0.724; p < 0.001)
- The 30-second Sit-to-Stand Test is reliable for identifying hemodialysis patients with exercise capacity impairment.
Physical Performance Testing[edit | edit source]
- 81 participants between 18 and 35 years of age averaged 33.0±5.4 repetitions during the 30CST 
- There was excellent test-retest reliability between 2 30CST trials in this group (ICC = 0.93) 
- Significant, strong negative correlation between 30CST repetitions and time to complete the 5 Times Sit to Stand (r = -0.78; p = 0.01); significant, strong positive correlations with the Lateral Step-Up Test (r = 0.51; p = 0.01)
- Individuals identified as sufficiently active (according to Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans) performed a statistically significant greater number of repetitions than those in the insufficiently active group (mean difference = [t (2,79) = 2.09; p = 0.04]
- Due to its strong psychometric properties, the 30CST may be a useful tool to assess functional LE in young adults, and for use as a physical performance test for athletes
References[edit | edit source]
- Shirley Ryan Ability Lab. 30 Second Sit to Stand Test. Available from: https://www.sralab.org/rehabilitation-measures/30-second-sit-stand-test (accessed 26 November 2023).
- Mac ICU Rehab. 30 Second Sit to Stand Test Tutorial. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RFkz33xwRRA (accessed 26 November 2023).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 30-Second Chair Stand Test. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkV0UvjXgcs (accessed 26 November 2023).
- Rikli R, Jones C, Functional fitness normative scores for community-residing older adults, ages 60-94. J Aging Phys Activity 1999;7(2):162-81.Available from: https://bpac.org.nz/falls/docs/The_30-Second_Chair_Stand_Test.pdf (accessed 26 November 2023).
- Rikli, RE, Jones, CJ. Development and validation of a functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity. 1999;7(2):129-161.
- Wright AA, Cook CE, Baxter GD, Dockerty JD, Abbott JH. A comparison of 3 methodological approaches to defining major clinically important improvement of 4 performance measures in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2011;41(5):319-27.
- Gill S, McBurney H. Reliability of performance‐based measures in people awaiting joint replacement surgery of the hip or knee. Physiotherapy Research International. 2008 Sep;13(3):141-52.
- Gill SD, de Morton NA, McBurney H. An investigation of the validity of six measures of physical function in people awaiting joint replacement surgery of the hip or knee. Clinical rehabilitation. 2012 Oct;26(10):945-51.
- Figueiredo PH, de Souza Veloso LR, Lima MM, Vieira CF, Alves FL, Lacerda AC, Lima VP, Rodrigues VG, Maciel EH, Costa HS. The reliability and validity of the 30-seconds sit-to-stand test and its capacity for assessment of the functional status of hemodialysis patients. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2021 Jul 1;27:157-64.
- Lein DH, Alotaibi M, Almutairi M, Singh H. Normative Reference Values and Validity for the 30-Second Chair-Stand Test in Healthy Young Adults. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2022;17(5):907–14.