Five Times Sit to Stand Test

Original Editor - Tolulope Adeniji

Top Contributors - Kim Jackson  

Objective[edit | edit source]

Five Times Sit to Stand Test.jpg

The five Times Sit to Stand Test (5x Sit-To-Stand Test) commonly abbreviated as 5XSST. Used to asses functional lower extremity strength, transitional movements, balance, and fall risk in older adults.[1]

Intended Population[edit | edit source]

5XSST is designed for adults from 18 to 64 years of age and older adults of 65+. This page addresses the test usage among the older adults.

In older adults this test is used to assess: lower extremity strength; balance; and fall risks in people with eg dementia, stroke, vestibular disorder, frailty, balance disorders, falls history [2]

Method of Use[edit | edit source]

The 5XSST scoring is based on the amount of time (to the nearest decimal in seconds) a patient is able to transfer from a seated to a standing position and back to sitting five times. The equipment need in performing 5XSST test includes: Stopwatch and standard height chair with straight back (43-45 cm, 17-18 inches high). Then the instruction is given by asking the test taker to sit on the chair by resting their back. Also, the test taker is instructed to fold their arms across their chest. Then the test taker should be instructed to do sit-to-stand five times, as quickly as possible, at the count of go and without their back or leg resting on the chair between the interval of repetition.

The lower the time to complete the test the better the outcome of the test. The Minimal Detectable Change(MDC) time for the test is within 3.6 to 4.2 second[3] [4] and Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is 2.3 seconds[5]. Also, the age matched norms score are 11.4 seconds for 60-69 years age groups and 12.6 seconds and 14.8 seconds for 70-79 and 80-89 years of age group ,respectively[6].

Evidence[edit | edit source]


The 5XSST test has excellent intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) range: 0.914–0.933) and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC range: 0.988–0.995) in healthy older adults[7].


The 5XSST is a valid measure of dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults, when its performance was compared with Time Up and Go test (The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between 5XSST and TUG (r=0.64, p<0.001))[8]


The 5XSST has a moderate responsivenes to change over time and was moderately related to measures of gait and dynamic balance in vestibular and balance disorders participants ( Responsiveness-treatment coefficient (RT) was 0.58 )[5].


30 Seconds Sit To Stand Test

References[edit | edit source]

  1. de Melo TA, Duarte AC, Bezerra TS, França F, Soares NS, Brito D. The Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test: safety and reliability with older intensive care unit patients at discharge. Revista Brasileira de terapia intensiva. 2019 Jan;31(1):27.
  2. Whitney SL, Wrisley DM, Marchetti GF, Gee MA, Redfern MS, Furman JM. Clinical measurement of sit-to-stand performance in people with balance disorders: validity of data for the Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test. Physical therapy. 2005 Oct 1;85(10):1034-45.
  3. Schaubert KL, Bohannon RW. Reliability and validity of three strength measures obtained from community-dwelling elderly persons. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2005 Aug 1;19(3):717.
  4. Mong Y, Teo TW, Ng SS. 5-repetition sit-to-stand test in subjects with chronic stroke: reliability and validity. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2010 Mar 1;91(3):407-13.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Meretta BM, Whitney SL, Marchetti GF, Sparto PJ, Muirhead RJ. The five times sit to stand test: responsiveness to change and concurrent validity in adults undergoing vestibular rehabilitation. Journal of Vestibular Research. 2006 Jan 1;16(4, 5):233-43.
  6. Bohannon RW. Reference values for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test: a descriptive meta-analysis of data from elders. Perceptual and motor skills. 2006 Aug;103(1):215-22.
  7. Teo TW, Mong Y, Ng SS. The repetitive Five-Times-Sit-To-Stand test: its reliability in older adults. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. 2013 Mar 2;20(3):122-30.
  8. Goldberg A, Chavis M, Watkins J, Wilson T. The five-times-sit-to-stand test: validity, reliability and detectable change in older females. Aging clinical and experimental research. 2012 Aug 1;24(4):339-44.