- 1 Description
- 2 Osteology
- 3 Sex-specific differences
- 4 Clinical Examination
- 5 Pathology/Injury
- 6 Resources:
Description The structure of the pelvis supports the contents of the abdomen while also helping to transfer the weight from the spine to the lower limbs. During gait, the joints within the pelvis work together to decrease the amount of force transferred from the ground and lower extremities to the spine and upper extremities.
- Two innominate bones, which consist of the:
There are three articulations within the pelvis:
- Inferiorly between the sacrum and the coccyx
- Posteriorly between the sacrum and each ilium (sacroiliac (SI) joint)
- Anteriorly between the pubic bodies (pubic symphysis).
Ligaments of the Pelvis
- Ventral/Anterior sacroiliac ligament
- Dorsal/Posterior sacroiliac ligament
- Interosseous sacroiliac ligament
- Ventral/Anterio sacrococcygeal ligament
- Dorsal sacrococcygeal ligament
- Lateral sacrococcygeal ligament
Pubic Symphysis Ligaments
- Superior pubic ligament
- Inferior pubic ligament
- Anterior pubic ligament
- Posterior pubic ligament
There are 36 muscles that attach to the sacrum or innominates. The purpose of these muscles is primarily to provide stability to the joint not to produce movement.
Muscles that attach to the sacrum or innominates are:
The female pelvis consists of a wider sacrum and a wider subpubic angle when compared to males. The female pelvis’ ischial spines are also less prominent than the male’s ischial spines. The male pelvis’ sacrum is generally longer and more curved with a narrower sub-pubic arch. In females a wider pelvic aperture is needed as it functions as the birth canal during labour.
SI Joint stress tests
- Anterior gapping test
- Sacroiliac distraction test
- Sacrotuberous ligament stress test
- Sacral compression test
- Rotational stress test
- Prone test
- Standing leg length test
- Functional leg length test
Other Special Tests
- Seated Flexion test (Piedallu's Sign)
- Supine long sitting test
- Sign of the buttock
- Posterior pelvic pain provocation test
- Gaenslen test
- Yeoman's test
- FABER (Figure-Four) test
- Fortin Finger Test
- Straight leg raise
- Gillet's test (Stork test)
- Pubic symphysis dysfunction
- Pregnancy related pelvic pain
- Pelvic fractures
- White TD, Black MT, Folkens PA. Human osteology. Academic press; 2011.
- Lewis CL, Laudicina NM, Khuu A, Loverro KL. The human pelvis: Variation in structure and function during gait. The Anatomical Record 2017;300(4):633-42.
- Magee DJ. Orthopedic physical assessment. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013.
- Anatomy Zone. Bones of the Pelvis. Available from: https://youtu.be/3v5AsAESg1Q [last accessed 27/01/2020]
- Calvillo O, Skaribas I, Turnipseed J. Anatomy and pathophysiology of the sacroiliac joint. Current review of pain 2000;4(5):356-61.
- Kurki HK. Pelvic dimorphism in relation to body size and body size dimorphism in humans. Journal of Human Evolution 2011;61(6):631-43.
- Meindl RS, Lovejoy CO, Mensforth RP, Carlos LD. Accuracy and direction of error in the sexing of the skeleton: implications for paleodemography. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1985;68(1):79-85.
- Tague RG. Sexual dimorphism in the human bony pelvis, with a consideration of the Neandertal pelvis from Kebara Cave, Israel. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1992;88(1):1-21.
- Rosenberg KR. The evolution of modern human childbirth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.1992;35(S15):89-124.
- Lovejoy CO. The natural history of human gait and posture: part 2. Hip and thigh. Gait & posture 2005;21(1):113-24.
- Abitbol MM. The shapes of the female pelvis. Contributing factors. The Journal of reproductive medicine 1996;41(4):242-50.