Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Original Editors - Yves Demol, Aurelie Ackerman 

Lead Editors    

Search Strategy

Searched databases: pubmed, web of science, google scholar, Cochrane Library


Searched terms: Iliotibial band syndrome, tractus iliotibialis, iliotibial tract, iliotibial band, iliotibial friction syndrome, iliotibial band strain, running injuries.


Definition/Description

An iliotibial friction syndrome is most frequently seen in military personnel, cyclists, runners or other athletes submitted to repetitive flexion and extension movements of the knee.[1][2] This repetitive motion is responsible for excessive friction between the lateral epicondyle and the iliotibial tract. Studies described an ‘impingement zone’ occurring at, or slightly below, 30° of knee flexion during foot strike and the early stance phase of running. During this impingement period in the running cycle, eccentric contraction of the tensor fascia latae muscle and of the gluteus maximus causes the leg to decelerate, generating tension in the iliotibial band.[3](Level 1A)

It is considered as a non-traumatic overuse injury and is often concomitant with underlying weakness of hip abductor muscles.[4] Pain appears in the region of the lateral femur epicondyle or a bit inferior to it.[1] During a physical examination we see an important tenderness of the lateral aspect of the knee. This tenderness is found superior to the joint line and inferior to the lateral femoral epicondyle.[1]

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the most common injury of the lateral side of the knee in runners, with an incidence estimated to be between 5% and 14%. [5] (level 1A)

It has even been reported that ITFBS is responsible for 22% of all lower extremity injuries.[1]


Clinically Relevant Anatomy

Itbs.png

The iliotibial tract is a thick band of fascia that runs on the lateral side of leg from the iliac bone till the upperside of the knee.[6](Level 5)

It has its origin on the lateral border of the iliac crest. It is composed of dense fibrous connective tissue that appears from the m. tensor fasciae latae, the gluteal fascia and m. gluteus maximus. It descends vertically at the lateral aspect of the thigh, between the layers of the superficial fascia, and inserts on Gerdy’s tubercle and the lateral proximal aspect of the fibular head.[7][4] The iliotibial tract is also firmly attached to the lateral edge of the linea aspera of the femur. [6](Level 5) 

Moreover the ilitibial tract becomes denser in its distal portion and gives an expansion to the lateral border of the patella. In this distal portion, the iliotibial tract covers the lateral femoral epicondyle, The iliotibial tract is stretched by m.gluteus maximus and m.tensor fasciae latae, both inserting on the proximal part of the tract.[7]

Studies have shown that the role of the muscle was at the hip, and that the function of the iliotibial band at the knee was ligamentous. Histologic and dissection study of the iliotibiaband at the lateral femoral epicondyle and gluteus maximus and fascia lata suggest a mechanosensory role acting proximally on the anterolateral knee. Figure [1]

This mechanosensory role may affect the interpretation of the ligament versus tendon function of the ITB from hip to lateral femoral epicondyle.

The iliotibial tract is a dynamic and multidimensional structure with relationships that span the lumbar spine to the anterolateral knee. The iliotibial band connects superiorly through the gluteus maximus to the lumbodorsal fascial, and inferiorly to the femur, vastus lateralis, lateral retinaculum knee, biceps femoris and anterolateral tibia. The interactions of the iliotibial band suggest a coordinated effort among the structures of the lumbar spine, hip, femur and knee. [6] (Level 5)

Epidemiology /Etiology

The etiology of Iliotibial Friction Syndrome is mostly multifactorial: [8] (Level 1A)
When the knee is positioned in extension the iliotibial band lies anterior to the lateral femoral epicondyle ; but when the knee is in 30° flexion the band will lie behind the lateral femoral epicondyle. Friction at the level of the knee takes place at the instant near footstrike, mainly in the foot contact phase at or slightly below 30° flexion. The exact location of the friction is, between the posterior edge of the iliotibial band and the underlying lateral femoral epicondyle. Iliotibial band syndrome also occurs in the deceleration phase of stance-phase running. The preceding swing phase and muscle preactivation may have a role in the quality and performance of the deceleration phase. [6] (Level 5)

Because of the mobility of the knee, activities with many repetitive flexions and extensions of the knee can cause the iliotibial band to rub the lateral femoral epicondyle. This can produce irritation and eventually an inflammatory reaction of the iliotibial band.

Also the muscle weakness of the hipabductors can be associated with iliotibial band syndrome, mainly in distance runners. [9] (Level 3B)
This causes increased hip internal rotation and knee adduction, what was found as a significant aspect for athletes with iliotibial band syndrome. [6] (Level 5)

Other proposed etiologies for IT band syndrome include compression of the fat and connective tissue that is deep the the IT band, as well as chronic inflammation of the IT band bursa.[10]

Hip arthroscopy is considered a safe procedure, considering the relatively low rate of complications. Despite several complications have been described following this surgical procedure. During a minimum followup of 2 years, 9 of the 162 patients (5.5%) developed ITBS. [11] (Level 2B) 


Characteristics/Clinical Presentation

In many instances the anamnesis will already provide an excellent basis for suspicion of this syndrome. As mentioned above, repetitive activities involving knee flexion-extension are usually reported, as is a burning pain at the level of (or just underneath) the lateral femoral epicondyle. The diagnosis in patients with this syndrome is based on different symptoms.[12] The main symptom of ITBFS is a sharp pain on the outer aspect of the knee that can radiate into the outer thigh or calf.[13] (Level 1A)

Among the characteristics, we find an exercise-related tenderness over the lateral femoral epycondyle.[12] The patients experience, on regular basis, an acute, burning pain when pressure is applied on the epycondyle with the knee in flexion and in extension.[2] Sign of inflammation due to the friction between tract and the lateral epicondyle during extension and flexion of the knee can also be found.[1][12] There is pain on the lateral aspect of the knee during running, increasing in intensity while running down hill. Pain is also exacerbated when running a long distance.[8] This overuse condition is often seen in runner, cyclists, and military recruits.[10]

Runners inflicted with ITBS are challenged by lateral knee pain. The first welldocumented cases were performed by Lieutenant Commander James Renne, a medical corps officer who documented on 16 ITBS cases out of 1000 military recruits. The onset occurred most frequently at the lateral knee after 2 miles of running, or hiking over 10 miles. Walking with the knee extended relieved the symptoms. All of the patients had focal tenderness over the lateral femoral epicondyle at 30 of flexion, and 5 patients had an unusual palpation described as “rubbing of a finger over a wet balloon.” [14] (Level 5)

Also the prevalence of women is estimated to be between 16% and 50% and for men between 50% and 81%. [5]  (Level 1A) 


Differential Diagnosis

Biceps femoris tendinopathy, degenerative joint disease, lateral collateral ligament sprain, lateral meniscus repair, myofascial pain, patellofemoral stress syndrome, popliteal tendinopathy, referred pain from lumbar spine, stress fractures, and superior tibiofibular joint sprain.[15]

Knee osteochondritis dissecans, meniscal injury, overuse injury, peroneal Mononeuropathy, trochanteric bursitis.[16] (Level 5) 


Diagnostic Procedures

There are different provocative tests:


Outcome Measures

NRS pain.jpg
                                                                                                Figure [2]


Examination

  •  Force of hip abduction:

The force of hip abductors can be decreased. These muscles should thus be tested.[12]

  • Treadmill test:

This test is described in several studies as a valid, effective, and sensitive method of evaluating the effects of treatments for running related pain and is used to measure the amount of pain that subjects experience during normal running. If this includes pain to the lateral side of the knee, the test is considered positive. [18] Level 1A

  • Noble compression test:

This test starts in supine posture and a knee flexion of 90 degrees. As the patient extends the knee the assessor applies pressure to the lateral femoral epicondyle. If this induces pain over the lateral femoral epicondyle near 30-40 degrees of flexion, the test is considered positive.[2] A goniometer is used to ensure the correct angle of the knee joint. [18] (Level 1A)

  • Ober test:
The patient is lying on his side with the injured extremity facing upwards. The knee is flexed at 90 degrees and the hip in abduction and extension, the thigh is maintained in line with the trunk. The patient is invited to adduct the thigh as far as possible. The test is positive if the patient cannot adduct farther than the examination table. A positive Ober test indicates a short / tense ilio-tibial band or tensor fasciae latae, which is frequently related to the friction syndrome.[1][19]
[20]

Both the Noble compression test and the Ober test can be use to examine a patient with a suspicion of Iliotibial friction syndrome. The result will be more obvious when we combine the two into one special test. For this, the position of the Ober test is adopted and compression is applied on the lateral epicondyle during passive knee extension and flexion. Moving the knee can produce more strain on the injured structures and can help to reproduce the symptoms of the patient if the combination does not. Medial patellar glide can also increase the symptoms (by tending the patellar expansion of the iliotibial band) and can reveal the precise localization while lateral glides reduces them. An internal rotation of the tibia when the knee is moved from flexion to extension can also produce the symptoms. A combination of the Nobel and Ober tests with an unloaded knee or in a weight bearing position can also be done the reproduce the symptoms.[2]


Medical Management

http://guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=36632&search=band+syndrome+and+knee+disorders

The treatment of ITBFS is usually non-operative, but in some cases in which conservative treatment and physical therapy remain uneffective, it might be necessary to apply surgery.

During surgery, a small piece of the posterior part of the iliotibial band that covers the lateral femoral epicondyle will be resected.[10]

There are also a number of case series[1] reporting resolution of ITBFS from the surgical excision of a bursa, cyst, or portion of a lateral synovial recess.

Surgical intervention is not indicated for ITBS except in rare cases in which prolonged conservative treatment has failed to either alleviate the patient's symptoms or resolve the ITBS.

Before considering surgery, the physician should investigate other possible sources of lateral knee pain. Lateral meniscus tears and chondromalacia can also cause lateral knee pain. Diagnostic arthroscopy should accompany any surgical procedure for ITBS.
Several procedures have been reported to be effective, most of which involve removing a portion of the ITB where it comes into contact with the lateral femoral epicondyle. Z- lengthening of the ITB at the level of the lateral epicondyle has also been proposed.[21] (Level 4)

Research has confirmed that oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or corticosteroid injections in the bursae or trigger points can be used to reduce the acute inflammatory response and pain. However, NSAIDs alone have not been found to be effective in providing symptom relief. Yet, in conjunction with other nonsurgical modalities and modification of activities, they can be beneficial in the short term for the therapy management.[10][10][8]The corticosteroid injections is proved to contribute to a rapid increase in mileage. [6] (Level 5)


Physical Therapy Management

The accepted treatment of ITBFS follows the outline common to the treatment for many connective tissue injuries, beginning with treatment of the acute inflammatory response using medication, rest, ice, heat or alternative techniques, progressing through a physical therapy treatment phase and finally surgical intervention, in case the common treatments would not be effective.

Treatment of the acute inflammatory response

Other care in the acute phase should focus on activity limitation or modification, and measures to relieve pain such as ice (cryotherapy) or heat.[1][10] Some authors[1][2] suggest complete rest from athletic activities for at least 3 weeks; other authors[4][7] suggest that it is best to rest a period from 1 week to 2 months, but this rest period depends on the severity of the condition and the reproduction of pain during clinical examination. But it is not necessary to stop the athletic activities in the initial stages (grades 1 and 2). It is sufficient to lower the intensity of the trainings, especially the activities that cause pain such as running.
In the more advanced cases (grades 3 and 4) it is requested that the patient does not perform any athletic activity in first 3 to 4 weeks. But it is suggested that the athlete performs other physical training activities, such as e.g. swimming, so that they can keep their functional abilities and also keep in shape.

If no improvement of symptoms occurs and inflammation persists, the following other treatment techniques might be considered:

  • Ultrasound therapy[10], providing thermal or non-thermal treatment of the injured tissue at a frequency range of 0.75 to 3 MHz (depending on the depth of the soft tissue to be treated)[22]
  • Muscle stimulation[10]
  • Iontophoresis or phonophoresis[10], techniques in which medication is administered into the injured tissue through ion distribution driven by an electric field or passed through the skin using ultrasound waves, respectively. 
    Iontophoresis with dexamethasone may be useful as an anti-inflammatory modality. [6] (Level 5)

Phonophoresis has been used in an effort to enhance the absorption of topically applied analgesics and anti- inflammatory agents through the therapeutic application of ultrasound. One study evaluated the efficacy of two ITBS treatments: phonophoresis using ultrasound to transport 10% hydrocortisone into subcutaneous tissues, and knee immobilization; the outcome suggests that receiving phonophoresis is a better treatment than just knee immobilization.[23] (Level 1A) 


An alternative treatment strategy is radial shockwave therapy. RSWT is considered safe as it results in minor adverse effects including worsening of symptoms over a short period of time, reversible local swelling, redness and hematoma. RSWT is believed to stimulate healing of soft tissue and to inhibit nociceptors. Thus, it increases the diffusion of cytokines across vessel walls into the painful area and stimulates the tendon healing response. Shockwaves also reduce the non-myelinated sensory nerve fibres and significantly reduce calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), and substance-P release. Finally shockwave treatment may stimulate neo-vascularisation in the tendon-bone and bone junction, thus promoting healing.
The shockwave treatment uses energy generated when a projectile in a handpiece is accelerated py pressurized air and hits a 15-mm-diameter metal applicator. The energy is then transmitted from the applicator via ultrasound gel to the skin, where the shockwave disperses radially into the tissue to be treated.
Radial shockwave therapy is shown to be really effective as rehabilitation program for runners with iliotibial band syndrome. [18] (Level 1A)


Physical therapy treatment

Once the acute inflammation and pain have subsided, physical therapy can be applied on the ITBFS in the subacute phase. The physiotherapist will determine the best approach suited for each person on an individual basis. The following consecutive phases in physical therapy are important:

  • Exercises to stretch the iliotibial band and related structures.The best exercises to start the physical treatment of ITBFS are passive or static stretching exercises.[24] This will lengthen the iliotibial band and will reduce friction with the lateral epicondyl of the femur. However, not only the iliotibial band needs stretching, but also the glutea. If the lateral gluteal muscles are found to be weak or functioning improperly, this will result in other muscles - including the iliotibial band - to have to compensate, which will cause contraction of the iliotibial band.[8] Furthermore, if the glutea is too short, it will also provoke a rotation of the leg and this will again create an abnormal stress on the iliotibial band, resulting in ITBFS.[25] Stretching exercises need to be performed at least 3 times a day. [5] (Level 1A)



  • The following exercices will stretch and lengthen the iliotibial band, tensor fascia latae, the gluteus medius and the related structures. Fredericson et al. compared the relative effectiveness of 3 common standing stretches for the iliotibial band. This study found that a particular stretch B – with the athlete standing, placing the affected foot adducted and behind the other, and laterally flexing away from the affected side with the arms stretched overhead – created the greatest lengthening of the band.[26]

  • Myofacial treatment is ideal in acute phase, when pain and inflammation in the insertion is felt. The triggerpoints in Biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, gluteus maximus, and tensor fascia latae muscles will be addressed by a myofascial treatment.[6](Level 5)

Frequently, soft tissue treatment through massage and triggerpoint therapy of the affected area by the physiotherapist decreases the pain and definitively treats the condition. The use of a foam roller on the tight muscles could also be beneficial.[8] The patient can also perform exercises using a foam roller at home to create deep transversal friction, self myofascial release (massage) and stretching of the muscles. A possible exercise is to lie on the side with the foam roller positioned perpendicular to the bottom leg, just below the hipbone. The upper leg should be positioned in front for balance. Using the hands for support, roll from the top of the outer thigh down to just above the knee, straightening the front leg during the movement. Pause over any spots where the tissue feels especially tight or knotted, and hold for at least 10 seconds. Reverse the motion, rolling from the knee back up to the hip. 
Deep tissue procedures, such as the Graston Technique (manual therapy that utilizes specially designed devices) and Active Release Technique (a patented manual therapy technique), to break up scar tissue and restore soft tissue motion [11] (Level 4)


  • Exercises to strengthen the abductor muscles and stabilize the hip.

A next important phase in the physical treatment of the ITBFS is to perform exercises to strengthen the muscles in the affected area. Since ITBFS is often associated with hip abductor weakness, strengthening and stabilizing of the hip will be beneficial in the treatment of ITBFS.[4]
Some examples of useful exercises: Hip hikes to strengthen the gluteus medius help stabilize the hip. Stand on the edge of a step with the majority of the body weight on the unaffected side. Lower the hip of the involved hip and bring it back to neutral. Repeat the exercise: first 2 sets of 10 repeats, lateron 3 sets of 15 repeats.[12] Another example is the side-lying hip abduction (Figure [3]) exercise with the back against a wall and the leg held at approximately 30° of hip abduction with slight hip external rotation and neutral hip extension. This exercise can be made more stenuous by placing a 1-metre-long band between the ankles.[4] 

Hips1.jpg

                                                                                              Figure [3]


Other exercises that are recommended, given the relationship of lowering body weightonone leg and neuromuscular control, are the ‘single-leg step down’ (Figure [4]), the ‘single-leg wall squat’ (Figure [5]) and the ‘single-leg dead lift’ (Figure [6]). [19] (Level 5)


Slsd.jpg
Single-Leg-Wall-Squat.png
                           Figure [4]                                                                                              Figure [5]
Sldl.gif
                                                                                              Figure [6]
  • Hip/knee coördination and running/cycling style modification through the increase of neuromuscular control of gait.[1][8]
    Going to the next phase of physical therapy, the physiotherapists will give training and instructions on multidimensional movement patterns, eccentric muscle contractions and integrated movement patterns. The main goal is to work with combinations of running, jumping, agility and balance exercises and that all with a clear emphasis on using the proper technique.
    Cyclist are also at risk for ITBFS if they tencto pedal with their toes turned in, which can cause abnormal stretching of the iliotibial band at the knee, so being aware of correct pedaling technique may minimize the risk of developing symptoms.[8]

These sorts of exercises need a strictly defined position so that they can be performed correctly. Follow the clear instructions and advice from a physiotherapist. The exercises should be performed slowly until that the patient feels the sensation of stretching. But the prolonged stretching that may causes pain, will decrease the possibility of longer maintenance of the stretching, it also increases the possibility of the muscle contraction that is triggered by a reflex, and it may eventually cause damage to these muscles.
On the other hand, keeping the stretching at the “initial” point will enable a complete relaxation of these muscles and the maintenance of the position for a longer period of time. The patient should keep the stretching at the point of the initial stretching for 15s , and then should he increase the time gradually to a maximum of 25s.[24]


Key Research

add links and reviews of high quality evidence here (case studies should be added on new pages using the case study template)


Resources

Primary resources

  • Renne, J.W. The iliotibial band friction syndrome. J. Bone Joint Surg., 1975; 57A: 1110-1111. 2B
  • Staff, P.H. and Nilsson, S. tendoperiostitis in the lateral femoral condyle in long-distance runners. Br. J. Sports Med., 1980; 14:38-40. 2B
  • Orava, S. Iliotibial tract friction syndrome in athletes – an uncommon exertion syndrome on the lateral side of the knee. Br. J. Sports Med., 1978; 12: 69-73. 2B
  • Noble, C.A. The treatment of iliotibial band friction syndrome. Br. J. Sports Med., 1979;13: 51-54 2B


Secundary Resources: Literature

  • M Béuima M., Bojanic I.. Overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal system. CRC press, 2004, p 222 – 228
  • Williams C., Harris M., D Stanish W., J Micheli L.. Oxford textbook of Sportsmedicine. Buller and Tonner ltd, Great Britain, 2000, p 686-687
  • C Reid D.. Sports injuries assessment and rehabilitation. Churchill Livingstone USA, 1992, p 424-428
  • Bahr R., Maehlum S., Clincal guide to sports injuries, Human Kinetics, Hong Kong, 2004, p 348 – 349


Added pictures


Clinical Bottom Line

Due to the variety of potential causes of IT band syndrome, it is important for the clinician to consider areas that may be contributing to abnormal body mechanics.  Especially with knee conditions, the joints above (hip) and below (ankle/foot) should be assessed to determine if they are contributing to the problem. 


Recent Related Research (from Pubmed)

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Lavine R. Iliotibial band friction syndrome; Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine (2010) :18–22
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Michael D. Clinical Testing for Extra-Articular Lateral Knee Pain. A Modification and Combination of Traditional Tests; North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy (2008) 3: 107–109.
  3. Van Der Worp Maarten et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome in Runners, Sport Medicine (2012).
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Fairclough J, Hayashi K, Toumi H, Lyons K, Bydder G, Phillips N, Best TM, Benjamin M. The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome; Journal of Anatomy (2006) 208, 309-316
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Van Der Worp Maarten et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome in Runners, Sport Medicine (2012).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Robert L. Baker et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome in Runners : Biomechanical Implications and Exercise Interventions, Physical médicine and réhabilitation clinics of North America, (2016).
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Sobotta J, Putz R, Pabst R, Putz R, van Lennep MJ. Atlas van de menselijke anatomie. (2006) Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Wong M. Pocket Orthopaedics, Evidence-Based. (2009) Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  9. Mucha MD et al., Hip abductor strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners: A systematic review., Journal of Science Medecine of Sports (2016).
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Strauss EJ, Kim S, Calcei JG, Park D. Iliotibial band syndrome: evaluation and management. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Conditions. 2011;19(12):728-36.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Jerold M. Stirling et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome Treatment & Management, Sports Medicine, (2015).
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Fairclough J, Hayashi K, Toumi H, Lyons K, Bydder G, Phillips N, Best TM, Benjamin M. Is iliotibial band syndrome really a friction syndrome?; Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (2007) 10, 74-76
  13. John M. Martinez et al., Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation for Iliotibial Band Syndrome Differential Diagnoses, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, (2016).
  14. Roberto Seijas et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome Following Hip Arthroscopy: An unreported complication, Indian J Orthop, (2016).
  15. Khaund R, Flynn SH. Iliotibial band syndrome: a common source of knee pain. American Family Physician. 2005;71(8):1545-1550.
  16. Bischoff Craig et al., Comparison of phonophoresis and knee immobilization in treating iliotibial band syndrome, Sports Medicine International Journal, (1995).
  17. Kristoffer Weckström et al., Radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy compared with manual therapy in runners with iliotibial band syndrome, Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, (2016).
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Kristoffer Weckström et al., Radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy compared with manual therapy in runners with iliotibial band syndrome, Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, (2016).
  19. 19.0 19.1 Gajdosik RL, Sandler MM, Marr HL. Influence of knee positions and gender on the Ober test for length of the iliotibial band; Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2003 Jan;18(1):77-9
  20. Bigesor. Ober's Test. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0C0WBw4l4s
  21. Schwellnus MP et al., Anti-inflammatory and combined anti-inflammatory/analgesic medication in the early management of iliotibial band friction syndrome., South-Africa Medicine Journal, (1991).
  22. Speed C.A.; Therapeutic ultrasound in soft tissue lesions, British Society for Rheumatology, 2001
  23. Gunter P. et al., Local corticosteroid injection in iliotibial band friction syndrome in runners : AfckLRrandomised controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine, (2004).
  24. 24.0 24.1 M Pecina M., Bojanic I.. Overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal system. CRC press, 2004, p 222 – 228
  25. Krista Simon; Iliotibial Band Syndrome; Nysportsmed
  26. Fredericson, M.; Quantitative analysis of the relative effectiveness of 3 iliotibial band stretches; Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 2002, vol. 83(5): 589-592


1. ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Lavine R. Iliotibial band friction syndrome; Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine (2010) :18–22
Level of evidence: 5
2. ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Rosenthal M.D. Clinical Testing for Extra-Articular Lateral Knee Pain. A Modification and Combination of Traditional Tests; North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy (2008) 3: 107–109.
3. ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Fairclough J, Hayashi K, Toumi H, Lyons K, Bydder G, Phillips N, Best TM, Benjamin M. The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome; Journal of Anatomy (2006) 208 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting Vrij (2006) 208 end_of_the_skype_highlighting, 309-316
4. ↑ 4.0 4.1 Sobotta J, Putz R, Pabst R, Putz R, van Lennep MJ. Atlas van de menselijke anatomie. (2006) Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
5. ↑ Fairclough J, Hayashi K, Toumi H, Lyons K, Bydder G, Phillips N, Best TM, Benjamin M. The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome; Journal of Anatomy (2006) 208 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting Vrij (2006) 208 end_of_the_skype_highlighting, 309-316
6. ↑ 6.0 6.1 Strauss EJ, Kim S, Calcei JG, Park D. Iliotibial band syndrome: evaluation and management. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Conditions. 2011;19(12):728-36.
7. ↑ Wong M. Pocket Orthopaedics, Evidence-Based. (2009) Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
8. ↑ Khaund R, Flynn SH. Iliotibial band syndrome: a common source of knee pain. American Family Physician. 2005;71(8):1545-1550.
9. ↑ Gajdosik RL, Sandler MM, Marr HL. Influence of knee positions and gender on the Ober test for length of the iliotibial band; Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2003 Jan;18(1):77-9
10. ↑ Renne, J.W. The iliotibial band friction syndrome. J. Bone Joint Surg., 1975; 57A: 1110-1111.
11. ↑ Staff, P.H. and Nilsson, S. tendoperiostitis in the lateral femoral condyle in long-distance runners. Br. J. Sports Med., 1980; 14:38-40.
12. ↑ Orava, S. Iliotibial tract friction syndrome in athletes – an uncommon exertion syndrome on the lateral side of the knee. Br. J. Sports Med., 1978; 12: 69-73.
13. ↑ 13.0 13.1 Noble, C.A. The treatment of iliotibial band friction syndrome. Br. J. Sports Med., 1979;13: 51-54.
14. ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 M Pecina M., Bojanic I.. Overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal system. CRC press, 2004, p 222 – 228
15. Pedowitz, R.N.; Use of osteopathic manipulative treatment for iliotibial band friction syndrome; J Am Osteopath Assoc , 2005, vol. 105 no. 12: 563-567
Level of evidence: 5
16. van der Worp, M.P.; iliotibial band syndrome in runners: a systematic review; Sports Med., 2012, 42(11) 969-992
Level of evidence: 3A
17. Saikia, S.; Etiology, treatment, and prevention of ITB syndrome: a literature review; Topics in Integrative Health Care, 2013, Vol. 4(3).
Level of evidence: 3A
18. Fredericson, M.; Quantitative analysis of the relative effectiveness of 3 iliotibial band stretches; Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 2002, vol. 83(5): 589-592
Level of evidence: 3B
19. Gunter P.; Local corticosteroid injection in iliotibial band friction syndrome in runners: a randomised controlled trial; Br J Sports Med 2004;38:269–272.
Level of evidence: 3B
20. Reiman M.P.;Hip Function’s Influence on Knee Dysfunction: A Proximal Link to a Distal Problem; Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2009
Level of evidence: 4
21. Krista Simon; Iliotibial Band Syndrome; Nysportsmed
Level of evidence: 5
22. Cheung R.T.H.; Influence of different footwear on force of landing during running. Phys Ther, 2008 May, 88(5): 620-628
Level of evidence: 3B
23. Beers A.; Effects of Multi-modal Physiotherapy, Including Hip Abductor Strengthening, in Patients with Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome. Physiother Can.;2008, 60(2): 180-188
Level of evidence: 1B
24. Starkey C.; Athletic training and sports medicine: An integrated approach; Burlington, MA : Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2013: 167-169
Level of evidence: 3A
25. Speed C.A.; Therapeutic ultrasound in soft tissue lesions, British Society for Rheumatology, 2001
Level of evidence: 2A
26. Lininger M.R.; Iliotibial band syndrome in the athletic population: strengthening and rehabilitation exercises. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 2009 Jun, 31(3):43-46
Level of evidence: 2B

27.Van Der Worp Maarten et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome in Runners, Sport Medicine (2012).
Level of evidence: 1A

28.Mucha MD et al., Hip abductor strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners: A systematic review., Journal of Science Medecine of Sports (2016).
Level of evidence: 1A

29. Kristoffer Weckström et al., Radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy compared with manual therapy in runners with iliotibial band syndrome, Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, (2016). 

Level of evidence: 1A

30. Robert L. Baker et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome in Runners : Biomechanical Implications and Exercise Interventions, Physical médicine and réhabilitation clinics of North America, (2016).
Level of evidence: 5

31. Dubin J. et al., Evidence Based Treatment for Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome, Sports Therapy, (2006).
Level of evidence: 1A

32. Roberto Seijas et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome Following Hip Arthroscopy: An unreported complication, Indian J Orthop, (2016).
Level of evidence: 2B

33. John M. Martinez et al., Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation for Iliotibial Band Syndrome Differential Diagnoses, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, (2016).
Level of evidence: 5

34. Jerold M. Stirling et al., Iliotibial Band Syndrome Treatment & Management, Sports Medicine, (2015).
Level of evidence: 4

35. Bischoff Craig et al., Comparison of phonophoresis and knee immobilization in treating iliotibial band syndrome, Sports Medicine International Journal, (1995).
Level of evidence: 1A

36. Schwellnus MP et al., Anti-inflammatory and combined anti-inflammatory/analgesic medication in the early management of iliotibial band friction syndrome., South-Africa Medicine Journal, (1991).
Level of evidence: 1A

37. Gunter P. et al., Local corticosteroid injection in iliotibial band friction syndrome in runners : A
randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine, (2004).
Level of evidence: 1A