Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation
Introduction[edit | edit source]
Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PENS) is a mini-invasive neuromodulation technique, the same as TENS but it difference it is minimally invasive procedure that combine the features of both TENS and electro acupuncture, it uses a needle electrode into the soft tissues to stimulate the peripheral sensory nerves. PENS depends on stimulating peripheral sensory nerves at the dermatome levels that correspond to the local pathology.
The difference between both PENS and electro acupuncture in electro acupuncture needles are inserted just below the skin, and the placement of needles are based on specific theories regarding energy flow throughout the human body unlike in PENS the location of stimulation is determined by proximity to the pain rather than the theories of energy that guide placement of needles (undergone western medical clinical reasoning). Percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation (PENFS) means the field of pain that has targeted, instead of targeting a specific nerve. PENS sometimes named percutaneous neuromodulation therapy (PNT).
There are till promising uses for PENS in different fields in future and more studies are required , For now it is used widely for chronic pain in some conditions, idiopathic chronic pain, neuropathic pain, and to treat overactive bladder syndrome OAB.
Mechanism Of Action[edit | edit source]
Sub Heading 3[edit | edit source]
Resources[edit | edit source]
- bulleted list
- numbered list