Closed Chain Exercise
Original Editors - Vanderpooten Willem
Top Contributors -
Closed kinetic chain exercise or closes chain exercise (CKC) is an exercise or movement where the distal aspect of the extremity is fixed to an object that is stationary.
Here are some characteristics of CKC and the differences with open kinetic chain exercises: 
| Characterisctic|| Closed kinetic chain exercices|| Open kinetic chain exercises|
| Stress pattern|| Linear|| Rotary|
| Number of joint axes|| Multiple|| One primary|
| Nature of joint segments|| Both segments move simultaneously || One stationary, other mobile|
| Number of moving joints|| Multiple joint movements|| Isolated joint motion|
| Planes of movement|| Multiple (triplanar)|| One (single)|
| Muscular involvement|| Significant co-contraction|| Isolation of muscle group, minimal muscular co-contraction|
| Movement pattern|| Significant functionally oriented|| Often non-functional |
Biomechanical and neurophysiologic factors
CKC techniques emphasize the sequential movement and placement of functionally related joints and therefore require coordinated and sequential muscle activation patterns to control proper joint movement. 
Closed kinetic chain exercises stimulate the proprioceptive system by proprioceptive feedback to initiate and control muscle activation patterns. 
1. Closed chain upperbody kinetic exercises
Push-ups and their derivatives, pull-ups or chin-ups, and dips. These concentrate on a co-contraction of the M. triceps, M. biceps, M. deltoids, M. pectoral may and min, and lower back for stabilization in various ratios depending upon angle and leverage.
Squats, deadlifts, lunges, power cleans, and leg presses. These concentrate on a co-contraction of the quadriceps, hamstrings, hip flexors, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles. The joints of movement include the knee, hip, and ankle
Clinical Bottom Line
Many factors should be considered when deciding to use open kinetic chain exercises versus closed kinetic chain exercises. The patient's condition and stage of rehabilitation will aid in the clinician's judgement of exercise prescription.
Recent Related Research (from Pubmed)
- Evaluation of open and closed kinetic chain exercises in rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
- Comparison of the clinical effects of open and closed chain exercises after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction.
- The effects of closed kinetic chain exercises and open kinetic chain exercises using elastic bands on electromyographic activity in degenerative gonarthritis.
- Effects of open and closed kinetic chains of sling exercise therapy on the muscle activity of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis.
- Differences in Muscle Activities of the Infraspinatus and Posterior Deltoid during Shoulder External Rotation in Open Kinetic Chain and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises.
- Effects of closed kinetic chain exercises on proprioception and functional scores of the knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
- Closed kinetic chain exercises with or without additional hip strengthening exercises in management of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.
- Changes of plantar pressure distributions following open and closed kinetic chain exercise in patients with stroke.
- ↑ Ellenbecker TS, Davies GJ. Closed kinetic chain exercises. A comprehensive guide to multiple-joint exercises. J Chiropr Med 2002;1(4):200.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Akuthota V, Herring SA. Nerve and vascular injuries in sports medicine. Springer, 2009.