Single Leg Stance Test

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Purpose[edit | edit source]

  • The Single Leg Stance (SLS) Test is used to assess static postural and balance control. The SLS Test is a balance assessment that is widely used in clinical settings to monitor neurological and musculoskeletal conditions.
    Single Leg Stance.jpg
  • Abnormal values may indicate conditions such as peripheral neuropathy, intermittent claudication, or other conditions that may impair balance.[1]
  • The SLS Test will quantify balance status for those who are at increased risks for fall.[1]

Method[edit | edit source]

  • Performed with eyes open and hands on the hips.
  • Patient stands on one leg unassisted; time begins when opposite foot leaves the ground; time stops immediately when opposite foot touches the ground and/or when hands leave the hips.
  • If unable to stand for 5 seconds or less client at greater risk of injury from fall.[2]

Age-Related Normative Values[edit | edit source]

  • 18-39 years-old (eyes open): 43 seconds
  • 18-39 years-old (eyes closed): 9 seconds
  • 40-49 years-old (eyes open): 40 seconds
  • 40-49 years-old (eyes closed): 7 seconds
  • 50-59 years-old (eyes open): 37 seconds
  • 50-59 years-old (eyes closed): 4.8 seconds
  • 60-69 years-old (eyes open): 26.9 seconds
  • 60-69 years-old (eyes closed): 2.8 seconds
  • 70-79 years-old (eyes open): 18.3 seconds
  • 70-79 years-old (eyes closed): 2 seconds
  • 80-99 years-old (eyes open): 5.6 seconds
  • 80-99 years-old (eyes closed): 1 second

Clinical Implications[edit | edit source]

Ability to control anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to lifting one leg while standing in unsupported equilibrium represents a complex motor task that is significantly impaired by:

Limitations[edit | edit source]

Single leg stance test normative values are minimal due to limited data.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Springer, B. A., Marin, R. H., Cyhan, T., Roberts, H., & Gill, N. W. (2007). Normative Values for the Unipedal Stance Test with Eyes Open and Closed. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 30(1), 8–15.
  2. Abilitiy lab SLS Available from: (last accessed 13.12.2020)
  3. Hunt MA, McManus FJ, Hinman RS, Bennell KL. Predictors of single‐leg standing balance in individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis care & research. 2010 Apr;62(4):496-500. Available from: (accessed 13.12.2020)
  4. Zhang C, Talaber A, Truong M, Vargas BB. KD Balance: An objective measure of balance in tandem and double leg stances. Digital Health. 2019 Oct;5:2055207619885573.Available from: (accessed 13.12.2020)
  5. Bonora G, Mancini M, Carpinella I, Chiari L, Ferrarin M, Nutt JG, Horak FB. Investigation of anticipatory postural adjustments during one-leg stance using inertial sensors: evidence from subjects with Parkinsonism. Frontiers in neurology. 2017 Jul 25;8:361.Available from: (accessed 13.12.2020)