High Intensity Interval Training

Original Editor - Sehriban Ozmen

Top Contributors - Sehriban Ozmen  

Description[edit | edit source]

High-intensity interval training (HIIT), is a type of exercise in which high-intensity exercises are performed with periods of low-intensity exercise or rest. [1]

HIIT, which has different subcategories, is generally divided into low or high-volume HIIT, depending on whether the time spent in active intervals is under or over 15 minutes. [1]

Evidence-Based Effects[edit | edit source]

In a review study [1], it has been found that HIIT programs are effective in improving:

Also, HIIT has been shown to decrease the risk for: [1]

Clinical Populations[edit | edit source]

Significant evidence is growing regarding the use of HIIT in chronic diseases. [22]

Cardiovascular disease is the most studied among them. Improved peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), [23][24] functional capacity and quality of life [22] are the demonstrated benefits of HIIT in patients with cardiovascular disease. In a recent randomised control study [25], it has been proven that six months of supervised high-intensity interval training following percutaneous coronary intervention reduced atheroma volume in residual coronary atheromatous plaques.

Pulmonary disease and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are chronic diseases studied less. In patients with pulmonary disease, HIIT is shown to be effective in improving functional capacity, quality of life, and symptoms like dyspnea and leg discomfort. For patients with T2D, HIIT was shown to be effective in positively altering the percentage of body fat and increasing peak power output. [22]

In different studies positive effects of HIIT such as enhancing functional recovery, [26][27][28] cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), [26][28] and gait parameters [26] [29][30][27] [28] are shown in patients who had a stroke. However, further study establishing the feasibility, safety, and efficacy is needed to guide clinical practice in post-stroke rehabilitation. [31]

Prescription[edit | edit source]

According to a guideline [32] for the delivery and monitoring of HIIT in clinical populations:

Step 1: Measure (by maximal exercise testing) or estimate (by prediction equations) maximal heart rate (HRmax). Step 2: Calculate the HR target zone (equates to 85– 95% HR max).
Step 3: Validate the HR target zone using a Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE). For this process, start the first high-intensity interval at RPE 15 and finish at RPE 17–18 within 4 min. For each of the next three intervals, try to reach RPE 17-18 by the halfway point at 2 min. Step 4: Validate the HR target zone according to the highest HR recorded for each interval at step 3. (Step 4a). If HR does not remain within the HR target zone, calibration of the HR target zone (Step 4b) can be made with one of these options: repeating the maximal exercise test or estimating a new HR max and recalculating the HR target zone.

Clinical Considerations[edit | edit source]

Indications For Ceasing HIIT[edit | edit source]

  • Symptoms such as angina, dyspnea, light-headedness, confusion, or signs of poor perfusion
  • Oxygen saturation < 88%
  • Rise in blood pressure > 220/105mmHg
  • Drop in systolic blood pressure >10mmHg from baseline during high-intensity interval
  • Slowing heart rate with higher workload or development of any atypical arrhythmia. [33]

Absolute Contraindications[edit | edit source]

Resources[edit | edit source]

From the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM):

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Atakan MM, Li Y, Koşar ŞN, Turnagöl HH, Yan X. Evidence-based effects of high-intensity interval training on exercise capacity and health: A review with historical perspective. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021 Jul 5;18(13):7201.
  2. Batacan RB, Duncan MJ, Dalbo VJ, Tucker PS, Fenning AS. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. British journal of sports medicine. 2017 Mar 1;51(6):494-503.
  3. Atakan MM, Güzel Y, Bulut S, Koşar ŞN, McConell GK, Turnagöl HH. Six high-intensity interval training sessions over 5 days increases maximal oxygen uptake, endurance capacity, and sub-maximal exercise fat oxidation as much as 6 high-intensity interval training sessions over 2 weeks. Journal of sport and health science. 2021 Jul 1;10(4):478-87.
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  11. Mekari, S.; Neyedli, H.F.; Fraser, S.; O’Brien, M.W.; Martins, R.; Evans, K.; Earle, M.; Aucoin, R.; Chiekwe, J.; Hollohan, Q.; et al. High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility in Older Adults. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 796. [CrossRef]
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  14. Mijwel S, Jervaeus A, Bolam KA, Norrbom J, Bergh J, Rundqvist H, Wengström Y. High-intensity exercise during chemotherapy induces beneficial effects 12 months into breast cancer survivorship. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. 2019 Apr 15;13:244-56.
  15. Dun Y, Thomas RJ, Smith JR, Medina-Inojosa JR, Squires RW, Bonikowske AR, Huang H, Liu S, Olson TP. High-intensity interval training improves metabolic syndrome and body composition in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation patients with myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular diabetology. 2019 Dec;18(1):1-1.
  16. Keogh, J.W.L.; Grigg, J.; Vertullo, C.J. Is Home-Based, High-Intensity Interval Training Cycling Feasible and Safe for Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?: Study Protocol for a Randomized Pilot Study. Orthop. J. Sports Med. 2017, 5, 2325967117694334. [CrossRef]
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