Pharmacological Management of Parkinson’s

Original Editor - Andrew Bennett Lee Price Top Contributors -

Introduction[edit | edit source]

Parkinson’s is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects motor function. This disease has become an epidemic, affecting approximately 1 percent of individuals over the age of 65 years old [1]. It is caused by decreased dopamine production in the basal ganglia due to degeneration of dopamine-secreting neurons [2],[3]. Initially, people with Parkinson's may be asymptomatic with the first clinical symptoms appearing after 60% of the dopaminergic neurons have degenerated in the substantia nigra [4]. Cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's include bradykinesia, akinesia, rigidity, and resting tremors [2],[5]. The exact cause of Parkinson's is unknown; however, contributing factors may include trauma, infection, cortical degeneration, antipsychotic drugs and cerebrovascular disease [6][7][8][9]. If Parkinson's goes untreated, total incapacitation will occur due to uncontrolled motor problems. This is why it is extremely important for people with Parkinson's to be prescribed the proper drug regimen.

Physical Therapy Implications for Parkinson's Drugs[edit | edit source]

Levodopa in the Treatment of Parkinson's[edit | edit source]

Patient Education for Parkinson's Drugs[edit | edit source]

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Levodopa, MAO-B inhibitors, Dopamine agonist, and Anticholinergic drugs are the main medications used in the treatment of the neurodegenerative condition, Parkinson’s Disease. Understanding the importance and impact of antiparkinsonian medications on our patients living with this disease is imperative. Being able to recognize early warning signs of adverse symptoms of the medications such as: weakness, dizziness, confusion, and dyskinesias could greatly alter our plan of care and the patient’s safety. If left unaddressed, these adverse effects could substantially decrease our overall quality of care that we could administer. Furthermore, if we had a better grasp on how the drug worked within the body from the time it was given, to the point of excretion, a physical therapist may be able to plan their time of care accordingly to avoid these adverse issues.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Harris PE ,C. K. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used by the general population: a systematic review and update. NCBI. October, 2012. Accessed November 5, 2018.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chen JJ, Nelson MV, Swope DM. Parkinson’s disease. DiPiro JT, Et al, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 8th ed. New York: Mcgraw-Hill. 2011.
  3. Parent M, Parent A. Substantia nigra and Parkinson's: a brief history of their long and intimate relationship. NCBI. May, 2010. Accessed November 5, 2018.
  4. Lecht, S., Haroutiunian, S., Hoffman, A., & Lazarovici, P. Rasagiline – A Novel MAO B Inhibitor in Parkinson’s Disease Therapy. NCBI. June, 2007. Accessed November 5, 2018.
  5. Garcia Ruiz PJ, Catalan MJ, Fernandez Carril JM. Initial motor symptoms of Parkinson disease. NCBI. November 17, 2011. Accessed November 5, 2018.
  6. Gelabert-Gonzalez M, Serramito-Garcia R, Aran-Echabe E. Parkinsonism secondary to subdural haematoma. NCBI. July, 2012. Accessed November 5, 2018.
  7. Gupta D Kuruvilla. Vascular parkinsonism: what makes it different? NCBI. December, 2011. Accessed November 5, 2018.
  8. Lopez-Sedon JL, Mena MA, de Yebenes JG. Drug-induced parkinsonism in the elderly: incidence, management and prevention. NCBI. February, 2012. Accessed November 5, 2018.
  9. Mazokopakis EE, Koutras A, Starakis I, Panos G. Pathogens and chronic or long-term neurologic disorders. NCBI. March, 2011. Accessed November 5, 2018.