Muller's Test

Original Editor - Rachael Lowe

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Purpose[edit | edit source]

Muller's test is used to find posterior Cruciate Ligament disruption and posterior knee laxity. This test has also been termed the Quadriceps Active Test by Daniel, et al

Technique[edit | edit source]

The Muller test is performed with the patient supine, and in the same position as the posterior drawer. The first part of the test is to examine the anterior silhouette of the proximal tibia from the side, and compare this to the uninjured, contralateral knee. The patient is then asked to raise his or her foot off the table. A positive test reveals posterior sag of the proximal tibia initially, and anterior translation of the proximal tibia prior to the foot leaving the table with attempted elevation of the foot. This anterior translation can be quantified and compared to the opposite knee.[1]


Evidence[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Daniel DM, et al. Use of the Quadriceps Active Test to diagnose posterior cruciate-ligament disruption and measure posterior laxity of the knee. JBJS. 1988;70A:386–391
  2. PCL quadriceps active test. Available from: [Accessed on 19/09/17]