Tha anterior scalene, AKA scalenus anterior (or even scalenus anticus) muscle is one of the lateral muscles of the neck, belonging to the scalene group. It is deeply placed, lying behind the Sternocleidomastoid.
It is located between the subclavian vein and the subclavian artery; the roots of the brachial plexus pass posterior to it; the phrenic nerve crosses its anterior surface.
- Anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae.
- 1st rib
- By a narrow, flat tendon into the scalene tubercle on the inner border of the first rib, and into the ridge on the upper surface of the rib in front of the subclavian groove.
- Brachial plexus, C5-7
- Anterior branches of the Cervical nerves 5 to 7
- Ascending cervical branch of the inferior thyroid artery
When the Scalenes act from above, they elevate the first and second ribs.
Acting from below, they produce side flexion of the vertebral column; if the muscles of both sides act, the vertebral column is slightly flexed.
All 3 scalene muscles produce rotation of the cervical spine to the same side.
When acting from above, they help to elevate the 1st rib and are accessory muscles of respiration.Acting from below they are cervical flexors and rotators.
- J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002 Oct;32(10):488-96. Actions of the scalene muscles for rotation of the cervical spine in macaque and human. Buford JA, Yoder SM, Heiss DG, Chidley JV.