Middle Scalene, AKA Scalenus Medius, is the largest and longest muscle in the Scalene group of lateral neck muscles. Often penetrated by the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerves, it is deeply placed, lying behind Sternocleidomastoid.
Superior surface of the 1st rib, posterior to the subclavian groove
Cervical nerves 5 to 3 & 4
Mscular branches of the ascending cervical artery
Acting from above: elevation of 1st rib
Acting from below: cervical side flexion and rotation; if bilateral action, small degree of cervical flexion
Acting from above: accessory muscle of inspiration
Acting from below: cervical side flexor and rotator
Recent Related Research (from Pubmed)
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- J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002 Oct;32(10):488-96.Actions of the scalene muscles for rotation of the cervical spine in macaque and human. Buford JA, Yoder SM, Heiss DG, Chidley JV.