Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia
The original Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobiais (TSK) was first developed in 1991 by R. Miller, S. Kopri, and D. Todd. TSK is 17 items a self-reporting questionnaire based on evaluation of fear of movement, fear of physical activity, and fear avoidance. It was first developed to distinguish between non-excessive fear and phobia in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, specifically the fear of movement in patients with chronic low back pain then widely used for different parts of the body. The questionnaire using 4 points to assess that are based on; the model of fear-avoidance, fear of work-related activities, fear of movement, and fear of re-injury. There is another valid, and reliable abbreviated version of the scale that consists of 11 items .
It consists of two subscales,
Activity avoidance (AA): reflection of activity that may result in an increase in pain or cause injury.
Somatic focus (SF): reflection of beliefs and underlying serious conditions.
Tampa scale used in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain such as low back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia. TSK-AA was also valid to use after spinal fusion in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.
Method of Use
TSK composed of 17 items, scoring range from 1: 4 as follows for items from 1, 2, 3-7, 9-11, 13-15, and 17:
(1) Strongly disagree
(4) Strongly agree.
For items 4, 8, 12, and 16 it is vice versa:
(1) Strongly disagree.
(4) Strongly agree.
The total score of the scale range from 17- 68, where 17 means no kinesiophobia, 68 means severe kinesiophobia, and score ± 37 indicates there is kinesiophobia.
The shortened version TSK-11 maintains items 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, and 17 from the original scale, and its score range from 11-44.
Internal consistency, TSK shows a high level of internal consistency across all items and is positively associated with related measures of fear-avoidance, pain catastrophizing, pain-related disability.
In the Finnish version of TSK, the test-retest reliability (ICC) = 0.887.
Construct validity: moderate correlation coefficient with measures of pain-related fear, pain catastrophising, and disability in patients with CLBP.
Predictive validity: moderate correlation coefficient with physical performance tests.
Concurrent validity is moderate, ranging from r(s) =0.33 to 0.59.
For patients with chronic low back pain, TSK was sensitive to detect clinical changes, it was also sensitive to detect changes after spinal fusion. Unlike in patients with ACL injury, it isn't the best way to assess psychological factors according to the Japanese version.
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