Schober test

 

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Original Editors

Top Contributors - Shauni Van Overstraeten, Jolien Wauters and Kai A. Sigel  

Purpose

The purpose of the Schober test is to reflect the lumbar ROM during flexion.(Rezvani. 2012 (1B))[1].

Technique

  1. Original Schöber Test
    The patient is standing with his back towards the examiner. The examiner determines the location of the lumbosacral junction and marks it by drawing a horizontal line. A second line is marked 10 cm above the first line. The difference between the measurements in erect and flexion positions indicates the outcome of the lumbar flexion. (Rezvani. 2012 (1B))[2].
  2. Modified Schöber Index (also called short Schöber test) (Lilius 1989 (1B))[3].
    The patient is standing with his back towards the examiner. The examiner determines the location of the lumbosacral junction by precising the location of the dimples of Venus. The intersection of the top of the dimples of Venus is marked by drawing a horizontal line. This line acts as the landmark. The second line is marked 10 cm above the first and the third is marked 5 cm below the first line. The difference between the measurements in erect and flexion positions indicates the outcome of the lumbar flexion. (Rezvani. 2012 (1B))[2].
  3. Modified-modified Schöber Test
    The patient is standing with his back towards the examiner. The examiner locates the inferior margin of the SIPS with the thumbs and then marks the intersections of the SIPS by drawing a horizontal line. The second line is drawn 15 cm above the midpoint of the first horizontal line. The difference between the measurements in erect and flexion positions indicates the outcome of the lumbar flexion. (Rezvani. 2012 (1B))[2].
[4]

Evidence

  1. Original Schöber Test
    The validity against radiographs was according to Macrae. strong (r=0.90), according to Rahali-Khachlouf. moderate (r=0.68).
    The interclass (r=0.90) and intraclass (r=0.96) reliability was found to be excellent. (Rezvani. 2012 (1B)) [2].
  2. Modified Schöber Index
    The validity against radiographs was according to Macrae. strong (r=0.97), according to Rahali-Khachlouf. moderate (r=0.59).
    The interclass (r=0.92) and intraclass (r=0.96) reliability was found to be excellent (Tousignant 2005 (4))[5].
  3. Modified-modified Schöber Test
    The validity of the modified-modified Schober test is moderate (r=0.67) with an excellent interclass (r=0.91) and intraclass (r=95) reliability. (Rezvani. 2012 (1B))[2].

Recources

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References

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  1. Rezvani A, Ergin O., Karacan I., Validity and reliability of the Metric Measurements in the Assessment of Lumbar Spine Motion in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis., 2012, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, SPINE vol 37, Number 19, pp E1189-E1196 (level of Evidence: 1B)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named p1
  3. G.Lilius, Laasonen EM, Myllynen P, Harilainen A, Gronlund G, Lumbar facet joint syndrome, Helsinki university hospital, vol 71B, No. 4, August 1989, 681-684 (Level of evidence: 1B)
  4. Schober Test for Lumbar Spine Flexion. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYOUA9asDu8
  5. M Tousignant, Poulin L, Marchand S, , the modified-modified schober test for range of motion assessment of lumbar flexion in patients with low back pain: a study of criterion validity, intra- and inter-rater reliability and minimum metrically detectable change, disability and rehabilitation, 2005, VOL.27, NO.10, Pages 553-559 (Level of evidence: 4)