Cardiac Depression Scale

Original Editor - Ammar_Suhail

Top Contributors - Ammar Suhail, Tomer Yona, Kim Jackson, Sweta Christian and Adam Vallely Farrell  


The Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) was developed for the specific purpose of providing a valid and reliable instrument to measure depression in cardiac patients. The CDS is the only measure for depression derived from responses of cardiac patients. It offers a more responsive and sensitive alternative to other measures that are not always suitable for cardiac patients because they have been developed and validated in non-cardiac populations. The CDS is a 26 item questionnaire, each item requiring a response on a Likert scale from 1 (‘Strongly disagree’) to 7 (‘Strongly agree’), the scale being tagged at each end with an explanatory phrase.

Intended Population

The traget population is cardiac patients with diagnosed cardiac diseases. The scale has been tested on following population

  • Adult cardiac disease  patient example includes coronary artery disease, heart failure, post myocardial infarction, valve disease, arrythmias, ischaemic heart disease etc.

Method of Use 

Equipment Required

Test paper and pencil 

General Instructions

The test requires no formal training and takes only 5 minutes to administer.The scale is of self report type, so patient is properly instructed to fill the scale ensuring proper scoring.

The Scale

The questionnaire consists of a number of statements about the way patient feel at present.
Next to each statement there is a rating scale from 1 to 7 for patient  to indicate how much you agree or disagree with the statement.

Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

The scale has 26 questions or statements for which patient marks from 1 to 7 and the final reading is taken.

Reliability and Validity

Whilst having 97% sensitivity and 85% specificity for diagnosing major depression, it also assesses the range of less severe ‘reactive’ depression. The interrater and the reliability has not been established. In a validation study done in UK for CDS, a battery of questionnaires (the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 [SF-36] Health Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] and the Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS]) were used to find out the reliability of CDS.The results demonstrated high internal reliability  (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93) and an acceptable test-retest reliability (0.79). Concurrent validation against the SF-36, BDI and HADS demonstrated strong correlations. It was used in men recovering from CABG surgery. The result of showed Excellent correlation with Beck Depression Inventory (r = 0.751, 0.787, 0.737, 0.819) at baseline, 6, 12, and 36 weeks respectively.


The Cardiac Depression Scale is under copyright. Further information can be obtained from Dr. Samia Toukhsati at [email protected] or Professor David Hare at [email protected]


Kiropoulos LA, Meredith I, Tonkin A, Clarke D, Antonis P, Plunkett J. Psychometric properties of the cardiac depression scale in patients with coronary heart disease. BMC psychiatry. 2012 Dec 3;12(1):1.

Chantal F.SKi, David.R.Thompson, David.L.Hare, Andrew.G.Stewart, Roger W. Cardiac depression scale: Moking scale in heart failure.Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012; 10: 141. Published online 2012 Nov 23. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-141