WHOQOL-100

Original Editor - Lauren Lopez Top Contributors - Lauren Lopez

Objective

To measure the quality of life of individuals and populations.

The WHOQOL-100 was developed alongside its shorter counterpart, the WHOQOL-BREF, by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and published in 1995. It was developed over several years and from 15 centres around the world[1][2]. The questions stem from multiple statements about quality of life, health and well-being from people with and without disease, and health professionals[1]. It has been tested for reliability and vailidity[1].

Intended Population

Specific populations or groups with a particular disease, or general populations.

Method of Use

The WHOQOL-100 is patient-reported questionnaire. It comprises 100 questions on the individual's perceptions of their health and well-being over the previous two weeks. Responses to questions are on a 1-5 Likert scale where 1 represents "disagree" or "not at all" and 5 represents "completely agree" or "extremely".

The questions cover six domains of quality of life plus general QOL and health[1]:

  1. Overall Quality of Life and General Health
  2. Physical Health
  • Energy and fatigue
  • Pain and discomfort
  • Sleep and rest

3. Psychological

  • Bodily image and appearance
  • Negative feelings
  • Positive feelings
  • Self-esteem
  • Thinking, learning, memory and concentration

4. Level of Independence

5. Social Relations

  • Personal relationships
  • Social support
  • Sexual activity

6. Environment

  • Financial resources
  • Freedom, physical safety and security
  • Health and social care: accessibility and quality
  • Home environment
  • Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills
  • Participation in and opportunities for recreation/leisure
  • Physical environment (pollution/noise/traffic/climate)
  • Transport

7. Spirituality/Religion/Personal beliefs

  • Religion/Spirituality/Personal beliefs (single facet)

Reference

The WHO's WHOQOL-100

Evidence

In its extensive development, the WHOQOL group has rigorously tested the WHOQOL-100's psychometric properties[1]. Multiple studies have also tested the WHOQOL-100's psychometric properties in various disease groups. Some examples follow.

Reliability

The WHOQOL-100 demonstrated strong reliability when measuring QOL in people with depression (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96)[3], schizophrenia (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94)[4], people with breast cancer[5], and when comparing sick and well people[6].

Validity

In a study of people receiving treatment for moderate depression, the domains and facets of the WHOQOL-100 demonstrated high construct, divergent and convergent validity[3]. The WHOQOL-100 has also demonstrated validity in comparing a general population of well and sick people[6], schizophrenia[4] and chronic pain[7].

Responsiveness

The WHOQOL-100 is responsive to change in QOL following liver transplant[8] and in those with chronic pain[7].

Miscellaneous

The WHOQOL-100 is available in more than 20 languages. It shows good discriminatory power in people with depression i.e. those with worse depression record lower scores[3].

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 World Health Organisation. WHOQOL: Measuring Quality of Life. Available from https://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/whoqol-qualityoflife/en/index1.html. Accessed 2 April 2020.
  2. Power M, Bullinger M, Harper A, & The World Health Organization Quality of Life Group. The World Health Organization WHOQOL-100: Tests of the universality of quality of life in 15 different cultural groups worldwide. Health Psychol. 1999. 18; 5: 495–505.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Skevington SM, Wright A. Changes in the quality of life of patients receiving antidepressant medication in primary care: validation of the WHOQOL-100. Br J Psychiatry. 􏰀􏰀2001;178: 261-267. Accessed 16 April 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Orsel S, Akdemir A, Dag I. The sensitivity of quality-of-life scale WHOQOL-100 to psychopathological measures in schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2004. 45; 1: 57-61.
  5. Den Oudsten BL, Van Heck GL, Van der Steeg AFW, Roukemaad JA, De Vriesa J. The WHOQOL-100 has good psychometric properties in breast cancer patients. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009. 62; 2: 195-205.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Skevington SM. Measuring quality of life in Britain: Introducing the WHOQOL-100. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1999. 47; 5: 449-459.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Skevington SM, Carse MS, Williams AC. Validation of the WHOQOL-100: pain management improves quality of life for chronic pain patients. Clin J Pain. 2001. 17; 3: 264-75.
  8. O'Carroll R, Smith K, Couston M, Cossar JA, Hayes PC. A comparison of the WHOQOL-100 and the WHOQOL-BREF in detecting change in quality of life following liver transplantation. 2000. Qual Life Res; 9: 121–124.