Elbow Osteoarthritis


Original Editor - George Prudden

Lead Editors- George Prudden, Niha Mulla, Kim Jackson and WikiSysop;

Introduction[edit | edit source]

Osteoarthritis is a condition that usually affects the weight-bearing joints and elbow is on of the least effect, though it can occur due to wear and tear of joint cartilage from aging and daily activities. [1][2]The most common injuries of elbow joint are fractures and dislocations which usually heal well. But, these injuries cause problems later as the injury might have changed the way joint biomechanics normally works and cause extra wear and tear than it would on a non-injured joint. Injured joints cause degenerative changes at faster pace that lead to pain and inflammation which in tern leads to difficulty in performing daily living activities.[3][4][5]

Clinically Relevant Anatomy[edit | edit source]

EOA2.jpg

The elbow joint is a synovial hinge joint. Three bones are involved in the articulation of the joint: the distal end of the humerus and proximal ends of the radius and ulna. Similar to other hinge joints articular surfaces are reciprocally shaped, there are strong collateral ligaments and muscles are grouped at the sides so not to impede movement.

The trochlea at the distal end of the humerus, projects anteriorly and inferiorly at an angle of 45o. The trochlea notch at the proximal ulna, projects anteriorly and superiorly at an angle of 45o. The orientation of these articular surfaces allows a large amount of flexion. It achieves this by delaying contact between the humerus and ulna and providing space for musculature.

The carrying angle describes the lateral deviation of the ulnar axis from the humerus. Aproximately in males it is 10o - 15o and in females 20o - 25o.[6]

Pathophysiology[edit | edit source]

There are two predominant causes of elbow osteoarthritis: primary and post-traumatic.[7][8][9]

1. Primary[edit | edit source]

  • Primary osteoarthritis is uncommon and associated with those who take part in excessive sport or manual work. It is most commonly seen in the dominant arm. Initially degenerative changes and osteophytes occur at the olecranon and coronoid processes and respective articular surface whereas the central surfaces remain intact.
  • This pattern manifests itself as patients' commonly complaining of pain at the end of range of motion for both flexion and extension.
  • As the disease progresses to the intrinsic articular surfaces, pain is experienced throughout the range of motion as well as a loss in range of motion due to enlarged osteophytes and capsular contracture may occur. 
  • Isolated primary osteoarthritis is uncommon at the humeroradial joint.  

2. Post-traumatic[edit | edit source]

  • Any trauma to the elbow joint could lead to post-traumatic osteoarthritis.
  • Abnormal kinematics of a joint are thought to cause arthritic changes.
  • The articular surfaces can become incongruent following trauma, because of malunion of a fracture site or ligamentous instability.
  • Patients tend to report pain and crepitus associated with movements of flexion and extension or forearm rotation.

Epidemiology[edit | edit source]

EOA1.png

In an study from 1965, Ruelle et al.[10] report that only 0.56% rheumatology clinic has elbow OA. The symptoms described by the patient were mild, and two thirds of patients had no pain. Reduced range of motion was the most common symptom with loss of extension early in the disease and loss of pronation and supination later on. In 15.5% of those with elbow OA, ulnar nerve was also reported

Clinical Presentation[edit | edit source]

  • Joint pain with or with loss of range of motion. Early stages of the disease is associated with pain at the extremes of range whereas once advance pain can be felt throughout range.
  • Extension is the most common direction for loss of range post-trauma whereas in primary OA loss of motion is variable.
  • Trauma is predominant cause of elbow OA. Hence, it is important to gather management history.
  • Ulnar neuropathy is a often a finding associated with elbow OA. The clinician should attempt to identify changes to hand function, neuropathic pain, weakness, or changes to sensation.
  • Red flags include infection associated with any surgery and septic arthritis. [4][7]

Diagnostic Procedures[edit | edit source]

Physical examination[edit | edit source]

  • Observation of the upper extremity with comparisons to contralateral side. Look out for deformity, swelling, and muscle atrophy. 
  • Range of motion. Consider joints above and below.
  • Neurovascular examination, the ulnar nerve is commonly effected.[4]
  • Ligamentous stability, Varus and valgus test of collateral ligaments are commonly performed.[7]
  • Crepitus is often present during motion of arthritic elbows. [4]

Imaging[edit | edit source]

X-ray is most commonly used when imaging the elbow joint. Expect to see projections for anteroposterior, lateral and oblique directions. On viewing an x-ray the central joint space is usually preserved with osteophytes typically located at the anterior and posterior aspects. It is important to review previous images especially when there is a history of trauma. With such a history, clinicians should look out for malalignment, incongruency of the joints, or evidence of heterotopic ossification. Stress radiographs are sometimes used when there is a history of instability.

CT is useful in complex cases such as heterotopic ossification, intra-articular loose bodies, bony deformity or malunion is suspected in the setting of previous fracture.

MRI has a limited role in diagnosis and is used only in rare occasions.[7]

Outcome Measures[edit | edit source]

Management / Interventions[edit | edit source]

Non-operative management is the predominant initial treatment for both forms of osteoarthritis of the elbow. Medicine management can include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Patients may find sleeves or compression bandages useful for comfort.[7]

There is a paucity of literature regarding physiotherapy management of elbow OA. However, principles of OA rehabilitation used at other joints are likely to be effective with the elbow. The most common approach is a combination of exercise therapy and education. Manual therapy could be considered.

On failing conservative management surgery can be considered.

Surgical options[edit | edit source]

  • Arthroscopic debridement [3]
  • Open Ulno-humeral Arthroplasty or Distraction Interposition Arthroplasty[3]
  • Total elbow arthroplasty[3]
  • Linked or Semi-constrained Prostheses or Unlinked or Resurfacing Prostheses or Convertible Prostheses[3]
  • Arthroscopic radial head resection
  • Radio-capitellar arthroplasty
  • Interposition Arthroplasty [12]
  • Elbow fusion[12]
  • Total elbow replacement[12]

Differential Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

  • Ligament sprain/tear
  • Lateral epicondyle tendinopathy
  • Medial epicondyle tendinopathy
  • Ulnar neuropathy
  • Undiagnosed fracture
  • Referred pain from cervical spine

Rehabilitation[edit | edit source]

Goal of rehabilitation in OA elbow is reducing symptoms like pain, swelling and lost range of motion with maintaining and improving/enhancing the strength of elbow joint musculature. [12]

  • Non- surgical rehabilitation: Heat therapy for pain reduction, range of motion exercises for elbow which are further progressed to strengthening exercises for elbow, shoulder and upper back. As the patients symptoms improve, patient can progress to a monitored 4 to 6 weeks of home program.
  • Rehabilitation after surgery: Post surgery, elbow joint will be bandaged or splinted which can limit or reduce range of motion for elbow joint. Post surgery long term rehabilitation is mandatory for up to three months. Main goal of rehabilitation for initial few days is pain management along with reduction of swelling. As the pain and swelling is reduced, range of motion and strength training for elbow joint is concentrated up on for independence of daily living activities.

Resources[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Athwal G, Fischer S. Osteoarthritis of the elbow - orthoinfo - aaos. 2017 Available from: https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/osteoarthritis-of-the-elbow/
  2. Versus Arthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA) of the elbow and shoulder. . Available from: https://www.versusarthritis.org/about-arthritis/conditions/osteoarthritis-oa-of-the-elbow-and-shoulder/
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Cheung EV, Adams R, Morrey BF. Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow: current treatment options. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2008 Feb 1;16(2):77-87.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Gramstad GD, Galatz LM. Management of elbow osteoarthritis. JBJS. 2006 Feb 1;88(2):421-30.
  5. Doherty MI, Preston BR. Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 1989 Sep 1;48(9):743-7.
  6. Palastanga NP, Soames RW, Anatomy and human movement: Structure and function. 6th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2011 Sep 27. ISBN: 9780702035531.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 2. Biswas D, Wysocki RW, Cohen MS. Primary and Posttraumatic arthritis of the elbow. Arthritis. 2013;2013:1–6.
  8. Cheung EV, Adams R, Morrey BF. Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow: current treatment options. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2008 Feb 1;16(2):77-87.
  9. Ravalli S, Pulici C, Binetti S, Aglieco A, Vecchio M, Musumeci G. An overview of the pathogenesis and treatment of elbow osteoarthritis. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. 2019 Jun;4(2):30.
  10. Ruelle JL, Debeuckelaere M, Raynal L. Introduction à l’étude ducoude. Journal belge de rhumatologie et de médecine physique 1965;20:161–7
  11. Smith MV, Calfee RP, Baumgarten KM, Brophy RH, Wright RW. Upper Extremity-Specific Measures of Disability and Outcomes in Orthopaedic Surgery. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American volume. 2012;94(3):277-285. doi:10.2106/JBJS.J.01744.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Orthogate. Osteoarthritis of the Elbow. september 4; 2015 Available from: https://www.orthogate.org/patient-education/elbow/osteoarthritis-of-the-elbow