Daniels and Worthingham's Muscle Testing

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Daniels and Worthingham's Muscle Grading Scale[edit | edit source]

Table 1. Daniels and Worthingham's [1]
Grade Description
0 Complete lack of voluntary muscle contraction.

The examiner is unable to feel or see any muscle contraction

1 Faint or “flicker” muscle contraction without any movement of the limb.

The examiner can see or palpate some contractile activity of the muscle/s or may be able to see or feel the tendon “pop up” or tense as the person tries to perform the contraction.

2- Gravity eliminated movement that is less than full range of motion.
2 Very weak muscle contraction with movement through complete range of motion in a position that eliminates or minimizes the force of gravity.
2+ In gravity minimized position, completes full available range and holds end position against mild resistance; or against gravity, completes up to half of the full range of motion.
3- Against gravity, more than half but less than full range of motion.
3 Muscle can complete a full range of motion against only the resistance of gravity.
3+ Completes full range of motion against gravity, and holds end position against mild resistance.
4 Able to complete the full range of motion against gravity and can tolerate strong resistance without breaking the test position. The Grade 4 muscle clearly breaks with maximal resistance.
5 Able to complete full range of motion and maintain end point range position against maximal resistance. The examiner cannot break the Athlete’s hold position.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Brown M, Hislop H, Avers D. Daniels and Worthingham's muscle Testing-E-Book: Techniques of manual examination and performance testing. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013 Jan 25.