Adductor Squeeze Test

Original Editor - Wanda van Niekerk Top Contributors - Lilian Ashraf, Wanda van Niekerk and Kim Jackson

Introduction

Groin injuries are common sports injuries especially in sports that involve running, kicking, side to side movements, repetitive twisting and change in direction.[1][2]

Groin injury is more likely to occur in individuals with adductor muscles weakness, especially adductor muscle strain.[1]

Purpose

The adductor squeeze test is used in the diagnosis of groin injuries and for the measurement of adductor muscles strength.[1]

It is important to assess the strength of the adductor muscles, as adductor muscles weakness is an intrinsic risk factor of groin injuries and individuals with adductor muscles weakness are more likely to sustain groin injuires.[1][2]

Thus, the adductor squeeze test can be used as a screening tool to detect adductors muscle weakness and decrease the risk of groin injuries.[3] 

Technique

The test is performed in 3 positions which are 0°, 45° and 90° of hip flexion, with the patient lying supine.[1]

Several angles are used due to the multi-factorial role of  hip adductor muscles.[4]

The examiner places his fist between the patient’s knees and the patient is instructed to squeeze the examiner’s fist, contracting the adductor muscles maximally.[4]

Also, the strength of the hip adductors can be measured objectively by repeating the same manoeuvre with a handheld dynamometer or sphygmomanometer placed between patient’s knees as he squeezes them in.[1]

The test is positive if the patient complains of pain in the adductor muscles or bone pain at the anterior and medial pelvic ring.[4]

A study by Delahunt et al (2011) concluded that the optimal test position is 45° of hip flexion, as high pressure values and high level of adductor muscles activity were recorded at 45°.[1]

Evidence

It has been shown to be a useful diagnostic tool in identifying groin pain (Verrall 2007) and it is an reliable and accurate measurement of adductor muscle strength (Malliaras 2009).[1]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Delahunt E, Kennelly C, McEntee BL, Coughlan GF, Green BS. The thigh adductor squeeze test: 45 of hip flexion as the optimal test position for eliciting adductor muscle activity and maximum pressure values. Manual therapy. 2011 Oct 1;16(5):476-80.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hodgson L, Hignett T, Edwards K. Normative adductor squeeze tests scores in rugby. Physical Therapy in Sport. 2015 May 1;16(2):93-7.
  3. Moreno-Pérez V, Travassos B, Calado A, Gonzalo-Skok O, Del Coso J, Mendez-Villanueva A. Adductor squeeze test and groin injuries in elite football players: A prospective study. Physical therapy in sport. 2019 May 1;37:54-9.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Delahunt E, McEntee BL, Kennelly C, Green BS, Coughlan GF. Intrarater reliability of the adductor squeeze test in gaelic games athletes. Journal of Athletic Training. 2011;46(3):241-5.