Achilles Tendinopathy Toolkit: Section B - Outcome Measures

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Introduction[edit | edit source]

An outcome measure is a tool used to assess a patient’s current status. Outcome measures may provide a score, an interpretation of results and at times a risk categorization of the patient. Prior to providing any intervention, an outcome measure provides baseline data. The initial results may help determine the course of treatment intervention. Once treatment has commenced, the same tool may be used in serial assessments to determine whether the patient has demonstrated change. With the move towards Evidence Based Practice (EBP) in health care, outcome measures provide credible and reliable justification for treatment on an individual patient level.

The following patient-reported and performance-based outcome measures should be selected and used in the management of Achilles tendinopathy.

Patient-Reported Outcome Measures - PROMS[edit | edit source]

  • Population Specific Outcome Measures - Designed and validated for Achilles tendinopathy
    • Victorian Institute of Sports-Achilles - VISA-A (1) - Available here
      • 8-item scale. Max score= 100
      • 3 domains: pain, function, activity.
      • Clinically, scores >90 suggest full recovery.[ref 2]
      • The VISA-A is the only questionnaire validated specifically for mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. Recommended as the primary outcome measure in clinic and research setting for mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy[ref 3]
      • Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) = 15.4
      • No Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) to report for mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy.[ref 3]
    • VISA-A (Sedentary) (5) Available here (Click on ‘view questionnaire’)
      • Developed to evaluate response to treatment in a sedentary population. It has been estimated that up to 33% if mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy cases occur in non-active individuals.[ref 6]
      • No MCID or MDC available to report specific to this population.[ref 5]
  • Generic Outcome Measures - They are not designed specifically for Achilles Tendinopathy. Such as:
    • Numeric Pain Reporting Scale - NPRS (0-10) - Used to measure pain intensity only and it has been considered as a useful tool to measure immediate response to functional testing or post treatment response for mid-portion Achilles tendinoapthy. Available here
    • Lower Extremity Functional Scale - LEFS. Available here

Performance-Based Outcome Measures: (Clinician-Reported)[edit | edit source]

1. Heel-Rise test (10-14)
  • It is suggested as the main impairment measure for Achilles tendinopathy. It measures a combination of load tolerance and calf muscle endurance.
  • Click here to see a video of how to correctly perform the Heel-Rise test.
2. Single Leg Hop Test
  • Assesses energy storage-release function of tendon, and the stretch-storage cycle (SSC) required for cyclic weight bearing activities such as running.
  • Available here

References[edit | edit source]