Bedtime Routines Questionnaire

Original Editor - Romy Hageman
Top Contributors - Romy Hageman, Angeliki Chorti and Carina Therese Magtibay

Purpose[edit | edit source]

Child bedtime routines have been investigated using methods such as observation or sleep diaries. However, these approaches are often costly and complicate comparisons between studies because there is a lack of consistent operational definitions for routines. The Bedtime Routines Questionnaire (BRQ) is developed to evaluate the bedtime routines of children. It is a parent-reported measurement, consisting of 31 items[1]. It has been developed through literature, examining sleep diaries, and using a panel of sleep professionals[2].

Indended population[edit | edit source]

Technique[edit | edit source]

  • Administration: the questionnaire is filled out by a parent or caregiver on behalf of the child, typically using pencil and paper.
  • Time to adminster: 10-15 minutes

Scoring[edit | edit source]

Responses are collected using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from ''almost never'' to ''nearly always'', spread across different areas: weekdays, weekends, how upset the child gets if he or she does not perform specific bedtime routines, and a list of 15 bedtime-related activities. Scores are assigned to measure the consistency and reactivity of bedtime routines, as well as the presence of adaptive and maladaptive activities in the hour leading up to bedtime[1].

Psychometric values[edit | edit source]

  • Reliability: internal consistency is acceptable to excellent (α=0.69 - 0.90)[1][4]:
    • Routine behaviors = 0.90
    • Routine environment = 0.83
    • Total consistency = 0.88
    • Reactivity = 0.76
    • Adaptive activities = 0.74
    • Maladaptive activities = 0.69
  • Validity: fair[1]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Henderson JA, Jordan SS. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of the Bedtime Routines Questionnaire. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2009; 32(2): 271–280.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cohen RF. The relationship of sleep problems, bedtime routines, and hours of sleep to ADHD among elementary school aged children. Northeastern University. 2013
  3. Fletcher FE, Foster-Owens MD, Conduit R, Rinehart N J, Riby DM, Cornish KM. The developmental trajectory of parent-report and objective sleep profiles in autism spectrum disorder: Associations with anxiety and bedtime routines. Autism. 2016; 21(4): 493–503.
  4. Goncalves WSF, Byrne R, de Lira PIC, Viana MT, Trost SG. Psychometric properties of instruments to measure parenting practices and children’s movement behaviors in low-income families from Brazil. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2021; 21(1): 1–9.