Vancouver Referencing

Please Note: There are different versions of Vancouver referencing and this Article is only a guide; if you have
any doubts about your referencing you should always check with your lecturer, supervisor, course handbook and/or coursework guidelines.


You need to give details of the author(s), year of publication, title, edition if it's not the first edition, principal place of publication and publisher.

Hill C. Practical guidelines for cystic fibrosis care. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1998.

Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ. Type 2 diabetes in practice. London: Royal Society of Medicine, 2001.

Kennedy I, Grubb A. Medical law. 3rd ed. London: Butterworths, 2000.

Edited book

Johnson CD, Taylor I, editors. Recent advances in surgery. Vol 23. Edingburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

Chapter in a book

Watkins AD, Neuropharmacology. In: Kay, AB editor. Allergy and allergic diseases. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1997. p505-17.

Conference proceedings

Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996.

Conference paper

Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1992. p1561-5.

Government publications

Great Britain. Health of the Nation. London: HMSO, 1991. (Cmnd 1523.)

NHS Executive. Clinical governance: quality in the new NHS. London: Department of Health, 1999.

Royal Liverpool Children's Inquiry. The Royal Liverpool Children's Inquiry: report. (HC; 12-II). London: Stationery Office, 2001.

Act of parliament

Access to Justice Act 1999. London: The Stationery Office, 1999.


Faulkner A, et al. Effectiveness of hip prostheses in primary total hip replacement: a critical review of evidence and an economic model. Alton: Core Research on behalf of the NCCHTA, 1998. (Health technology assessment. review; v. 2, no. 6)

Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust. CHI action plan/Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust. Southampton: Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, 2000.


Bunker VW. Nutrition in the elderly with particular reference to essential trace elements [dissertation]. Southampton: Univ. Southampton. 1987.

Dictionary and Similar References

Stedman's medical dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995. Apraxia; p119-20.
Newspaper article

Charter D. Patients die after wrong transplant. The Times 2001 Sept 13.

Journal article

Vega KJ, Pina I, Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:980-3.

Warner JA, Warner JO. Early life events in allergic sensitisation. Br Med Bull 2000;56:883-93.

Popplewell EJ, Innes VA, Lloyd-Hughes S, Jenkins EL, Khdir K, Bryant TN, et al. The effect of high-efficiency and standard vacuum-cleaners on mite, cat and dog allergen levels and clinical progress. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2000;11:142-8.

Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J 1994;84:15.

Enzensberger W, Fischer PA. Metronome in Parkinson's disease [letter]. Lancet 1996;347:1337.

Clement J, De Bock R. Hematological complications of hantavirus nephropathy (HVN) [abstract]. Kidney Int 1992;42:1285.

Journal article in a supplement

Gazzard B. British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the treatment of HIV-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy (2005). HIV Med 2005;6(suppl 2):1-61.

Warner JO, Jones CA, Kilburn SA, Vance GHS, Warner JA . Pre-natal sensitization in humans. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2000;11(Suppl 13):6-8.

Journal article in electronic format

Chappuis F, Rijal S, Soto A, Menten J, Boelaert M. A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis. BMJ 2006;333:723-6. (accessed 10 Oct 2006).

Journal article: electronic & print versions differ

Juul AB, Wetterslev J, Gluud C, Kofoed-Enevoldsen A, Jensen G, Callesen T, et al. Effect of perioperative β blockade in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery: randomised placebo controlled, blinded multicentre trial. Abridged version: BMJ 2006;332:1482-5. Full version: (accessed 4 Oct 2006).

Organisation as an author

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension 2002;40:679-86.

Journal article with part/issue number required

Malek MM, Burd RS. The optimal management of malrotation diagnosed after infancy: a decision analysis. Am J Surg 2006;191(1):45-51.
Computer file

Hemodynamics III: the ups and downs of hemodynamics [computer program]. Version 2.2. Orlando (FL): Computerized Educational Systems, 1993.

Pamphlets and booklets

Cite pamphlets and booklets in the same way you would a book. If it does not include all the necessary information, put down as much information as you can.

British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition in pregnancy. London: British Nutrition Foundation, 1994.

Buck SF, Brown DA. Mortality from lung cancer and bronchitis in relation to smoke and sulphur dioxide concentration, population density and social index. London: Tobacco Research Council, 1964. (Tobacco Research Council research papers 7).

Personal communications

Personal communications should usually be cited in the body of your text:

...(J Bloggs, personal communication, 2006)...
Audiovisual material

Abrahams PH. McMinn's interactive clinical anatomy [CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. London: Mosby, 2001.

Acland RD. Acland's DVD atlas of human anatomy. DVD 3. The trunk [DVD]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004.

Television and radio programmes

Television and radio programmes should usually be cited in the body of your text:

...(Horizon, "The world's first face transplant", BBC2, 17 Oct 2006)...

Electronic publications/websites/web pages

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Disease fact sheet: avian influenza. (accessed 9 Oct 2006).

Department of Health. Policies and guidance. (accessed 2 May 2006).

Cochrane Library

Lord JM, Flight IHK, Norman RJ. Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, d-chiro-inositol) for polycystic ovary syndrome (Cochrane review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD003053