Manual Muscle Testing: Wrist Flexion

Original Editor - Claire Knott

Top Contributors - Claire Knott, Nikhil Benhur Abburi, Wanda van Niekerk and Uchechukwu Chukwuemeka  

Muscles Involved:[edit | edit source]

Patient Positioning[edit | edit source]

  • Patient is seated with dorsal surface of forearm supported on table in supination

Therapist Position[edit | edit source]

  • Therapist is seated to access test-side
  • Palpation of wrist flexors

To Test[edit | edit source]

  • Patient actively flexes the wrist through range.
  • For grades 4 to 5 apply resistance through palm in a direction opposite to flexion.
  • To satisfy grade 5 'normal muscle' performance criteria, the patient must have the ability to move through complete range of motion (active resistance testing) OR maintain an end point range (break testing) against maximum resistance.

Biasing Muscles/ Muscle Groups[edit | edit source]

  • To bias flexor carpi ulnaris: instruct patient to flex wrist leading with 5th digit and apply resistance in the direction of radial deviation and extension over 5th metacarpal.
  • To bias flexor carpi radialis: instruct patient to flex wrist leading with the thumb and apply resistance in the direction of ulnar deviation and extension over 2nd metacarpal.[1]


References[edit | edit source]

  1. Hislop H, Avers D, Brown M. Daniels and Worthingham's muscle Testing-E-Book: Techniques of manual examination and performance testing. 9e.  India: Elsevier; 2013.
  2. EducatedPT. Wrist Flexion (with Radial or Ulnar Deviation) MMT . Available from:[last accessed 31/7/2021]