Inferior Gluteal Artery
Description[edit | edit source]
The inferior gluteal artery is a terminal branch of the internal iliac artery supplying the gluteal and thigh regions. It is initially found in the pelvis after which it runs through the greater sciatic foramen to emerge into the gluteal region. 
Origin[edit | edit source]
Although the inferior gluteal artery arises directly from the internal iliac artery, it may also arise as a common trunk with the superior gluteal artery or the internal pudendal artery. The inferior gluteal artery can also be duplicated.  It is also known as the sciatic artery. 
Anatomy[edit | edit source]
The inferior gluteal artery passes downward between the second and the third sacral segments on the sacral plexus. Then the inferior gluteal artery exits the pelvic cavity via the infrapiriform foramen, and then ramifies within the gluteal region muscles.
Branches[edit | edit source]
As the terminal branch of the internal iliac artery, the inferior gluteal artery supplies the gluteal and thigh regions. It runs from the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen to come into the gluteal region. Inside the pelvis, it gives out several branches to supply the pelvic floor muscles. At its exit, it comes out into the gluteal region to give out branches that supply the sciatic nerve and the muscles and skin of the gluteal, hip, and thigh regions. 
Supply[edit | edit source]
The inferior Gluteal Artery supplies:
- The following muscles: piriformis, ischiococcygeus, iliococcygeus, gluteus maximus, obturator maximus, obturator internus, superior gemelli, inferior gemelli, quadratus femoris muscle;
- The sciatic nerve
- The head of the femur and upper thigh.
Its muscular supply includes the piriformis muscle, obturator internus, gluteus maximus and the superior hamstrings. It supplies the head of the femur and upper thigh and has a dedicated branch, which supplies the sciatic nerve.
Clinical Relevance[edit | edit source]
An inferior gluteal artery perforator flap may occasionally be used in breast reconstruction.
Related Pathology[edit | edit source]
Pseudoaneurysms may form after a trauma or after a procedure such as a transgluteal pelvic abcess drainage.
References[edit | edit source]
- Inferior gluteal artery. Available from: https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/inferior-gluteal-artery (Accessed, 28 November 2020)
- Inferior gluteal artery. Available from: https://www.anatomy.net/inferior-gluteal-artery (Accessed, 28 November 2020)
- Inferior Gluteal Artery. Available from:https://radiopaedia.org/articles/inferior-gluteal-artery (Accessed on January 5th, 2021).
- Dr Govinddas akbari. Course of superior and inferior gluteal artery, and obturator artery. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFNdRNyLbbc [last accessed 5/1/2021]
- AnatomyZone. Thigh Arteries - 3D Anatomy Tutorial. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IslbAQxDUt0 [last accessed 5/1/2021]