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Description[edit | edit source]
They are located between the navicular bone and the first, second and third metatarsal bones and are medial to the cuboid bone.
There are three cuneiform ("wedge-shaped") bones in the human foot: the first or medial cuneiform, the second or intermediate cuneiform, also known as the middle cuneiform and the third or lateral cuneiform
Structure[edit | edit source]
There are three cuneiform bones:
The first cuneiform (also known as the medial cuneiform) is the largest of the three bones, it is situated at the medial side of the foot, anterior to the navicular bone and posterior to the base of the first metatarsal.
Lateral to it is the intermediate cuneiform which articulates with four bones: the navicular, second cuneiform, and first and second metatarsals. The intermediate cuneiform (second cuneiform or middle cuneiform) is shaped like a wedge, the thin end pointing downwards. The intermediate cuneiform is situated between the other two cuneiform bones (the medial and lateral cuneiforms) and articulates with the navicular posteriorly, the second metatarsal anteriorly and with the other cuneiforms on either side.
The third cuneiform (also known as third cuneiform or external cuneiform) intermediate in size between the other two cuneiform bones, is also wedge-shaped, the base being uppermost. It occupies the center of the front row of the tarsal bones, between the intermediate cuneiform medially, the cuboid laterally, the navicular posteriorly, and the third metatarsal in front.
Function[edit | edit source]
The wedge shape of the cuneiform bones help to form and keep the transverse arch of the foot.
Muscle and ligamentous attachments[edit | edit source]
Tibialis Anterior muscle inserts at the medial cuneiform bone.
Peroneus (Fibularis) Longus muscle inserts at the medial cuneiform bone.
Tibialis Posterior muscle inserts at the medial cuneiform,
Flexor Hallucis Brevis muscle originates from the medial cuneiform