Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS)

Original Editor - Christopher Nyunt

Top Contributors - Christopher Nyunt and Uchechukwu Chukwuemeka

Objective[edit | edit source]

The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score is a patient-reported questionnaire that has six discrete subscales to assess Pain (10 items), Symptoms (7 items), Physical function in daily living (5 items), physical function in Sport and Recreation (8 items), Participation in Physical Activities (2 items) and hip and/or groin related Quality of Life (5 items). It has 37 items in total. [1]

Intended Population[edit | edit source]

The objective of the HAGOS questionnaire was to achieve a quantitative measure in a young to middle-aged physically active patient who had a hip and/or groin disability. HAGOS uses the framework of ICF in the questionnaire and thus looks at patients with hip and/or groin disabilities by relation to impairments, activity limitation and participation restrictions. [1] For a patient to be considered physically active, they need to be active for at least 2.5 hours per week. [2]

Method of Use[edit | edit source]

Six subscales make up the HAGOS questionnaire: Symptoms, Pain, ADL, Sport/Rec, PA, and QOL. Each subscale is rated independently, with a score ranging from 0 to 4 for each item. After the results are added together, the subscale scores are converted to a 0-100 scale. A score of 100 indicates the absence of hip and/or groin issues, while a score of 0 indicates significant hip and/or groin issues. The percentage of the total possible score attained is represented by the scores, which range from 0 to 100. There is no calculation of an overall score; instead, the subscales are examined and interpreted independently.

Evidence[edit | edit source]

Intraclass correlation values for the six subscales ranged from 0.82 to 0.91, indicating strong test-retest reliability. The least detectable change ranged between 17.7 and 33.8 points at the individual level and 2.7 and 5.2 points at the group level for the various subscales. Construct validity and responsiveness were supported by statistically substantial correlation coefficients (0.37-0.73, p < 0.01) for convergent construct validity and 0.56-0.69 (p < 0.01).[1]

Schoffl et al.[3] concluded that higher pre-season hip abductor strength and lower HAGOS scores were associated with previous hip and groin pain.

The HAGOS questionnaire has been translated and validated in several languages and cultures.[4][5][6]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Thorborg K, Hölmich P, Christensen R, Petersen J, Roos EM. The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS): development and validation according to the COSMIN checklist. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011; 45(6):478-491. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.080937.
  2. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health.
  3. Schoffl J, Dooley K, Miller P, Miller J, Snodgrass SJ. Factors Associated with Hip and Groin Pain in Elite Youth Football Players: A Cohort Study. Sports Med Open. 2021 Dec 19;7(1):97. doi: 10.1186/s40798-021-00392-w.
  4. Thomeé R, Jónasson P, Thorborg K, Sansone M, Ahldén M, Thomeé C, et al. Cross-cultural adaptation to Swedish and validation of the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) for pain, symptoms and physical function in patients with hip and groin disability due to femoral-acetabular impingement. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014 Apr;22(4):835-42. doi: 10.1007/s00167-013-2721-7.
  5. Mendonça LM, Camelo PRP, Trevisan GCC, Bryk FF, Thorborg K, Oliveira RR. The Brazilian hip and groin outcome score (HAGOS-Br): cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties. Braz J Phys Ther. 2021 Nov-Dec;25(6):874-882. doi: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2021.10.004.
  6. Christensen KB, Clausen MB, King E, Franklyn-Miller A, Harøy J, Andersen TE, et al. Validation of the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) using modern test theory across different cultures and languages: a cross-sectional study of 452 male athletes with groin pain. Br J Sports Med. 2022 Mar;56(6):333-339. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-104412.