Leading in Rehabilitation - Implement the Leadership Approach
Introduction[edit | edit source]
There is often a gap between knowing about leadership and actually doing the leading. Bridging this gap can help people in informal and formal leadership roles become capable and influential leaders in rehabilitation. Leaders must be able to:
- Assess the situation
- Select an appropriate leadership approach
- Implement the leadership approach
- Reflect on and learn from the experience
This page focuses on the third step of implementing the optimal leadership approach. It explores eight prominent leadership styles, which are discussed in detail here. These leadership styles are:
- Laissez-faire (delegative)
- Authoritarian (autocratic)
- Participative (democratic)
Leadership Effectiveness[edit | edit source]
Essentially, leaders strive to achieve leadership effectiveness, which is defined as:
“The successful exercise of personal influence by one or more people that results in accomplishing shared objectives in a way that is personally satisfying to those involved.”
The personal influence described in this quote refers to the combined impact of personal values, beliefs, and emotional intelligence. Together, these provide a foundation upon which the leadership approach, or the leadership skills and characteristics associated with each approach, can be implemented (Figure 1).
Personal Values[edit | edit source]
"[P]ersonal values can be defined as trans-situational goals that vary in importance and serve as guiding principles in people’s lives."
They are the inner standards from which you receive the motivation to act and by which you make decisions and judge behaviour. They represent a deep expression of what is most important to you.
Beliefs[edit | edit source]
Beliefs are thoughts, assumptions, outlooks and attitudes that we favour about ourselves and others (Figure 2). They arise from evidence, tradition, authority, association, and revelation.
Belief domains are summarised in Table 1.
|Domains||Positive Beliefs||Negative Beliefs|
|Self||“I am worthy of love and happiness”||“I am flawed and unlovable”|
|Others||“Others like me and value my opinion”||“People are generally hurtful and disloyal”|
|The world||“The world is my oyster!”||“The world is a dangerous place”|
|The future||“The future is bright and opportunity awaits”||“There is no hope – things will never get better”|
What is Emotional Intelligence?[edit | edit source]
"Emotional intelligence (EI) can be defined as the ability to identify, express, understand, manage, and use emotions. EI has been shown to have an important impact on health, relationships, and work/academic performance."
It enables individuals to:
- Recognise, understand, and manage their emotions and the emotions of others
- Express their thoughts
- Develop and maintain social relationships
- Cope with challenges
- Use emotional information in an effective and meaningful way
The following video provides an explanation of emotional intelligence.
Table 2, based on Jason Giesbrecht's work, lists the characteristics of someone who is high in emotional intelligence vs someone who is low in emotional intelligence.
|Low in Emotional Intelligence||High in Emotional Intelligence|
Bar-On Model of Emotional Intelligence[edit | edit source]
In order to understand emotional intelligence, it can be helpful to use the Bar-On model of emotional and social intelligence (see Figure 3). This model consists of five main sections known as composites:
- Decision making
- Stress management
Implement the Leadership Approach[edit | edit source]
Each leadership approach is associated with a specific set of characteristics and skills. Leaders must develop and refine their skills in a range of leadership styles, so they can successfully implement each style as appropriate. In order to develop these skills, it is necessary to first look within yourself and perform a self-assessment. Ask questions such as: “What leadership skills are needed to implement this approach? Do I possess these skills? If not, what steps do I need to take to develop these skills?"
The following table, adapted from Jason Giesbrecht, provides a summary of the key characteristics of eight common leadership approaches, ideas for self-assessment and useful tips to help you implement these leadership styles.
|Leadership Approach||Characteristics||Self-Assessment||Implementation Tips|
|Authoritarian / autocratic||
|Participative / democratic||
The International Association of Public Participation has developed a tool (Figure 4) that demonstrates the five levels of engagement (inform, consult, involve, collaborate, empower). It is important to consider which level of engagement needs to be applied in a specific situation.
When using this tool, it is possible that a team / audience may believe the leader is at one level of engagement (e.g. collaboration) while the leader believes they are at another level of engagement (e.g. inform). It is important to remember this when planning engagement sessions as this will help to keep you, the leader, safe.
Leadership Approach Preferences[edit | edit source]
- Some leadership approaches come easily…others, require more work
- What is your “natural” or preferred leadership approach?
- Become aware of your natural tendency…and manage the impulse to use this style in all situations
- Develop your ‘out of preference’ leadership styles
Resources[edit | edit source]
- Leadership Styles - Mark Murphy
- Discovering Your Leadership Style - David T Olsen
- The Leadership Challenge: How to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizations - James M Kouzes, Barry Z Posner
References[edit | edit source]
- Cooper JF, Nirenberg J. Leadership effectiveness. In Encyclopedia of Leadership. Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2004. p845-54.
- Giesbrecht J. Implement the Leadership Approach Course. Physioplus. 2022.
- Barni D, Danioni F, Benevene P. Teachers' self-efficacy: the role of personal values and motivations for teaching. Front Psychol. 2019;10:1645.
- Kotsou I, Mikolajczak M, Heeren A, Grégoire J, Leys C. Improving emotional intelligence: a systematic review of existing work and future challenges. Emotion Review. 2019;11(2):151-65.
- Brendon Gouveia. Emotional Intelligence. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weuLejJdUu0 [last accessed 17/04/2022]
- Gilar-Corbi R, Pozo-Rico T, Sánchez B, Castejón JL. Can emotional intelligence be improved? A randomized experimental study of a business-oriented EI training program for senior managers. PLoS One. 2019 23;14(10):e0224254.
- Sánchez-Teruel D, Robles-Bello MA, Camacho-Conde JA. Assessment of emotional intelligence in adults with down syndrome: Psychometric properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory. PLoS One. 2020;15(7):e0236087.
- Baskarada S, Watson JC, Cromarty J. Balancing transactional and transformational leadership. International Journal of Organizational Analysis. 2017;25: 506-15.
- Nielsen PA, Boye S, Holten A-L, Jacobsen CB, Andersen LB. Are transformational and transactional types of leadership compatible? A two-wave study of employee motivation. Public Admin. 2019;97:413-28.
- Banks GC, Engemann KN, Williams CE, Gooty J, Davis McCauley K, Medaugh MR. A meta-analytic review and future research agenda of charismatic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly. 2017;28(4):508-29.
- Eva N, Robin M, Sendjaya S, van Dierendonck D, Liden RC. Servant leadership: a systematic review and call for future research. The Leadership Quarterly. 2019;30(1):111-32.
- Chapter Seven: BEING A LEADER. In: Therapeutic Recreation (5th ed) [Internet]. Sagamore Publishing; 2004 [cited 2022 Apr 4]. p. 323–61. Available from: https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rss&AN=20094194&site=ehost-live
- Wang H, Guan B. The positive effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance: the moderating role of power distance. Front Psychol. 2018;9:357.
- Odoardi C, Battistelli A, Montani F, Peiró JM. Affective commitment, participative leadership, and employee innovation: a multilevel investigation. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 2019;35:103-13.
- Rapp-Ricciardi M, Garcia D, Archer T. Personal attributes linked to empowerment that influence receptivity to coaching leadership. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice. 2018;11(1):30-45.
- International Association for Public Participation. IAP2 Spectrum of Public Participation. Available from: www.iap2.org (accessed 17 April 2022).