Comparison between the DeLorme and Oxford Principles of Strength Training
Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles. It is also known as resistance training and it is indicated for muscle hypertrophy, strength gain, sport performance and physical rehabilitation, but in the last few years it has been promoted as a means for health promotion and disease prevention.
Benefits of Strength Training
When properly performed, strength training can provide significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being, including increased bone, muscle, tendon, and ligament strength and toughness, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury, increased bone density, increased metabolism, increased fitness and improved cardiac function. Training commonly uses the technique of progressively increasing the force output of the muscle through incremental weight increases and uses a variety of exercises and types of equipment to target specific muscle groups.
Principles of Strength Training
- DeLorme Principle: it is a method of exercise with weights for the purpose of strengthening muscles in which sets of repetitions are repeated with rests between sets. The technique involves isotonic exercise and determination of the maximum level of resistance. Thomas DeLorme’s work in the 1940 s proposes a progressive resistance exercise (PRE) program based on 10 repetitions maximum (10RM) where subject begins sets of training by performing the first set of 10 at 50% 10RM, the second at 75% 10RM and the third (final) at 100% of the 10RM.
- Oxford Principle: In opposite was created the ‘Oxford Technique’ as a regressive loading in each set in which the full (100%) 10RM was the first set and subsequent two sets were reduced to 75% and to 50% of the 10RM.
Repetition Maximum:which is often expressed as 1RM, or one-repetition maximum indicates the heaviest weight that can be lifted with maximum effort in a single repetition
10 Repetition Maximum or 10 RM: is the maximum weight that a subject can lift 10 times, In PRE, 10RM of a subject is determined
Comparison Between the DeLorme and Oxford Principles
Apparently, a sparse number of research studies have directly compared these two resistance training (RT) methods. Interestingly in one such comparison, Fish et al. reported no significant differences between both RT methods on strength gains. A study was conducted by da Silva et al. (2010) to compare the two principles of strength training and it was concluded from the results that there were no significant differences between the DeLorme or Oxford methods of RT on muscle performance or on serum enzymes activity responses over a 4 week period of training. Each method of training resulted in significant, but comparable, muscle strength gains and a low risk of injury. Thus the choice of one or another of these RT methods is acceptable for moderately active men.
- Kraemer W.J., Ratamess N.A. Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2004;36:674-688.
- ACSM American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2009;41:687-708.
- da Silva D. Curty V. Areas J. Souza S. Hackney A. Machado M. Comparison of DeLorme with Oxford Resistance training techniques : Effects of training of muscle damage markers. Biol. Sport 2010; 27:77-81
- Fish D. Krabak B. Johnson-Greene D. Delateur B. Optimal resistance training: comparison of DeLorme with Oxford techniques. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 2003;82:903-909.