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Top Contributors - Kalyani Yajnanarayan

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Clinically Relevant Anatomy
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Mechanism of Injury / Pathological Process[edit | edit source]

Clubbing is often associated with numerous gastrointestinal and cardiorespiratory diseases. Such as:

  • Lung cancer
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Endocarditis
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Crohn's disease
  • Liver disease (primary biliary cirrhosis)

Clinical Presentation[edit | edit source]

Stages of digital clubbing.

stage 1: peri-ungual erythema and softening of nail bed

stage 2: increase in the normal 160° angle between the nail bed and the proximal nail fold occurs, resulting in convexity as the nails grow. Eventually, the depth of distal phalanx increases and distal inter-phalangeal joint may become hyper-extensible. At this stage, finger develops a clubbed appearance

Stage 3: Finally, the nail and peri-ungual skin appear shiny and nail develops longitudinal ridging. This whole process usually takes years but in certain conditions, clubbing may develop sub-acutely (e.g. lung abscess, empyema thorasis). [1]

Diagnostic Procedures[edit | edit source]

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Outcome Measures[edit | edit source]

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Management / Interventions
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Differential Diagnosis
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Sarkar M, Mahesh DM, Madabhavi I. Digital clubbing. Lung India. 2012;29:354-362.