Biomechanics of the Basketball Jump Shot

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Introduction[edit | edit source]

Basketball is a popular sport with high dynamic movement. Players have to perform shots from several distances to the basket. The shooting styles of various basketball players may appear similar at first glance, but the differences are significant enough to categorize each player as possessing a distinct shooting technique[1]. The shooting biomechanics typically represent individualized movement patterns that players feel comfortable with. However, it is important to note that not all shooting techniques are considered correct. Novice players often exhibit more variability in their shooting movement patterns compared to expert players[2]. Researchers have noted individual differences in movement patterns among players[3]. These discrepancies may stem from various sources of inter-individual variation, including genetic factors, diverse physical attributes, and underlying medical conditions[3]. This is because each player possesses a unique performance mode, although certain movements have been identified as common patterns employed by all players to initiate jump shots.

Technique[edit | edit source]

The jump shot can be broken down into five sequential phases[4]:

  1. Preparation
  2. Ball elevation
  3. Stability
  4. Release
  5. Intertia

Biomechanics jump shot experienced vs. new players[edit | edit source]

Experienced players who consistently execute succesful jump shots do so by effectively control their parameters and maintaining consistent kinematics[2][5]. Conversely, novice players exhibit limited joint movement freedom. Their central nervous system prioritizes control to minimize extraneous movements in the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints during the release phase of the jump shot[5]. Additionally, high skilled shooters demonstrate a smaller horizontal shift in their center of gravity compared to less skilles shooters[3]. New players struggle to synchronize maximum joint angular velocity with the moment of ball release, resulting in lower throwing accuracy and height, increased displacement of the center of gravity towards the basket, and a greater trunk inclination[5]. These caracteristics distinguish new players from experienced ones in terms of shooting performance[6].

Biomechanical factors influencing jump shot success rates[edit | edit source]

  • Selection of release parameters significantly influence players' succes rates[7]:
    • Players with a higher success rate in free throws have a higher release position, resulting in a lower release velocity and a larger margin for error for the release speed. Careful adjustment of the release angle and velocity is crucial for achieving consistent success in free throws.
    • For three-point shots, players with a higher success rate have a larger margin for error in the combination of release speed and angle. This highlights the importance of adjusting release parameters to the specific requirements of the shooting distance and desired shot outcome.
    • Understanding these biomechanical principles can help players refine their technique and improve their success rate in jump shots:
      • Higher succes rate = higher release position, lower release speed, and a larger margin for error in release speed.
      • For closer shots the release angle should be increased to expand the margin for error in release speed. They should also make sure that this does not negatively affect variability.
      • For longer shots, it is recommended to not increase the release angle higher than necessary to maintain release speed variability.
      • Increasing the spin rate can assist in reducing the required release speed, particularly for close-range shots, by imparting a higher arc trajectory to the ball. This may be particularly beneficial for shorter players struggling to increase release height.
  • Shooting distance:
    • Increasing the shooting distance requires a greater release velocity and increased movement of the centre of gravity of the player[8] .

Resources[edit | edit source]

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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Struzik A, Peitrazewski B, Zawadzki J. Biomechanical analysis of the jump shot in basketball. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2014; 42: 73-79
  2. 2.0 2.1 Okubo H, Hubbard M. Kinematics of Arm Joint Motions in Basketball Shooting. Procedia Engineering. 2015; 112; 443-448
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Amirnordin SH, Goh Hui Khi M, Ngali Z, Afdzaruddin SM. Biomechanics Analysis of Basketball Shooting Via OpenPose Motion Capture System. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2024; 112(1): 32-45
  4. Okazaki V, Rodacki A, Satern M. A review on the basketball jump shot, Sport & Biomechanics. 2015; 14: 190–205
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Okazaki VHA, Rodacki ALF, Satern MN. A review of the basketball jump shot. Sport Biomechanics. 2015; 14(2): 190-205
  6. Ammar A, Chtourou H, Abdelkarim O, Parish A. Free throw shot in basketball: kinematic analysis of scored and missed shots during the learning process. Sports Sciences for Health. 2016; 12(1): 27-33
  7. Inaba Y, Hakamada N, Murata M. Influence of Selection of Release Angle and Speed on Success Rates of Jump Shots in Basketball. Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support. 2017; 48-55
  8. Gorshahri HN, Khazaeli MA. The relationship between kinematic and anthropometric variables of three-point jump shot from two different zones and the angle of the ball’s entry into the basket of the national male basketball players of Iran. Pharmacophore. 2018; 9: 49–56