Family of Participation-related Construct

Original Editor - Trista Chan

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Introduction[edit | edit source]

Family of Participation-related Construct (fPRC) is a framework proposed by researchers as an alternative to the International Classification of Function (ICF) framework, which is developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to help understand health with consideration of an individual's contextual factors[1]. In the ICF framework, 'participation' is refered to the involvement in society[2]. However, researchers have found that the definition of the participation domain in the ICF framework lacks consistency in research[3], and does not clearly differentiate between 'activity' and 'participation' within the classification [3]. The understanding of participation is necessary for research and in practice, as partcipation promote well-being and development, especially in children[4]. Furthermore, actual participation often do not meet the recommended physical activity level, especially in individuals with chornic health conditions[4]. The fPRC acknowledges that participation is not solely based on an individual's ability or skills, but is influenced by both intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors[3]. The fPRC is useful assisting clinicians identify barriers and facilitators to participation[5].

Components of the fPRC[edit | edit source]

The interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors, forms a dynamic framework for the understanding of participation[3]. Intrinsic factors include activity competence, sense of self and individual preferences[6], which shapes the choices and behaviour of an individual. External factors include environmental and contextual factors[6], which provides opportunities or barriers to participation. The fPRC highlights the complexity of participation, providing valuable insights to help clinicians effectively promote participation.

Extrinsic Factors[edit | edit source]

Environment/ context[edit | edit source]

  • physical, social economical, cultural and institutioal context on participation
  • importance to understand following: preference, sense of self and activity competence within the family

Intrinsic Factors[edit | edit source]

Preferences[edit | edit source]

  • what is preference and how it impact participation
  • individual factors
    • interest, values?
    • what is important for the family
  • environmental factors
    • cultural influences
    • accessibility/ opportunities
  • implication: identifying preference, accommodating

Sense of Self[edit | edit source]

  • what is sense of self and how it impact participation
  • perception of themselves: identity, roles, values, beliefs
  • self esteem/ confidence
  • implication: promoting, validating,

Activity Competence[edit | edit source]

  • what is activity competence and how it impact participation
  • same as ICF-CY[6]
  • capability and capacity[6](physical and cognitive)
  • perceived ability to participate/ perform
  • skills, knoelwdge, confidence
  • implication: self efficacy, skills development (physical and cognitive), recognise strength and limitations,

Participation[edit | edit source]

  • what is participation? distinguish attendence, onvolvement and engagement
  • What is the significance within family dynamics?

Attendance[edit | edit source]

  • definition
  • characteristics, example: physical presence, limited interaction/ contribution
  • factors affecting: external factors, preference and motivation

Involvement[edit | edit source]

  • definition
  • characteristics, example: active participation, contribution to activity completion or progress
  • factors affecting: interest, imporatance of activity

Engagement[edit | edit source]

  • definition
  • characteristics and example: level of active participation and interaction, emotional investment, commitment
  • factors affecting: connection, belonging, alignment to indivisual beliefs

Resources[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Farzad M, Layeghi F, Hosseini SA, Hamidreza K, Asgari A. Are the Domains Considered by ICF Comprehensive Enough to Conceptualize Participation in the Patient with Hand Injuries? Journal of Hand and Microsurgery [Internet]. 2017 Nov 29;09(03):139–53. Available from:
  2. Farzad M, Layeghi F, Hosseini SA, Hamidreza K, Asgari A. Are the Domains Considered by ICF Comprehensive Enough to Conceptualize Participation in the Patient with Hand Injuries? Journal of Hand and Microsurgery [Internet]. 2017 Nov 29;09(03):139–53. Available from:
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Imms C, Adair B, Keen D, Ullenhag A, Rosenbaum P, Granlund M. ‘Participation’: a systematic review of language, definitions, and constructs used in intervention research with children with disabilities. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology [Internet]. 2015 Sep 28;58(1):29–38. Available from:
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wright A, Roberts R, Bowman G, Crettenden A. Barriers and facilitators to physical activity participation for children with physical disability: comparing and contrasting the views of children, young people, and their clinicians. Disability and Rehabilitation [Internet]. 2018 Jan 30;41(13):1499–507. Available from:
  5. Kaelin V, Bosak DL, Villegas VC, Imms C, Khetani M. Participation-Focused strategy use among caregivers of children receiving early intervention. American Journal of Occupational Therapy [Internet]. 2020 Dec 16;75(1):7501205090p1–11. Available from:
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Imms C, Granlund M, Wilson PH, Steenbergen B, Rosenbaum P, Gordon AM. Participation, both a means and an end: a conceptual analysis of processes and outcomes in childhood disability. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology [Internet]. 2016 Sep 19;59(1):16–25. Available from: