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Objective[edit | edit source]
- The EQ-5D is a well-established and widely-used generic instrument for assessing health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study suggests that the EQ-5D-3L could be an excellent tool for quality of life assessment in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment.
- Designed as a self-completion questionnaire, it embodies two components, a health state description followed by an evaluation.
- The respondent classifies his or her prevailing state of health by selecting one of three different levels of problem severity within each of five health domains.
Intended Population[edit | edit source]
- The EQ-5D is a well-known and widely used health status instrument.
- It was developed by the EuroQol Group in the 1980s to provide a concise, generic instrument that could be used to measure, compare and value health status across disease areas.
- Although the EQ5D is a generic health related quality of life measure, there have been many efforts to validate the group of measures sub-populations such as multi-morbidity and Low Back Pain .
Method of Use[edit | edit source]
Designed as a self-completion questionnaire, it embodies two components, a health state description followed by an evaluation.
- Health State: The respondent classifies his or her prevailing state of health by selecting one of three different levels of problem severity within each of five health domains. The levels are none, moderate and severe/extreme (coded 1 through 3, respectively), whilst the domains are mobility, capacity for self-care, conduct of usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression, ordered as such.
- Evaluation: The respondent then evaluates his or her health using a visual analogue scale (VAS). This is a vertical, calibrated, line, bounded at 0 ("worst imaginable health state") and at 100 ("best imaginable health state"). Respondents indicate where they perceive their present state of health to lie, relative to these anchors.
Resources[edit | edit source]
Evidence[edit | edit source]
The EQ-5D was first developed in 1990 and is the world’s most widely applied generic multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUI).
- The original descriptive system has five dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression), each with three response levels (EQ-5D-3L).
- A five response level version has been developed (EQ-5D-5L) in an effort to reduce the potential for ceiling effects and to address concerns about the sensitivity of the 3L version for detecting clinically important differences in health-related quality of life (HrQOL).
- Emerging evidence suggests the newer 5-level version does have improved measurement properties including feasibility, ceiling effects, sensitivity and convergent validity and therefore may be more useful for measuring population-level health status.
- A new off-the-shelf scoring algorithm estimated from a sample of the UK adult general population is now available for this version.
- In a study of 224 older patients with multi-morbidity and polypharmacy, it was found that the EQ5D-3L and EQ5D-5L both demonstrated validity and responsiveness. Both tests showed good discriminant validity when compared with the Barthel Index and also, both tests showed good responsiveness to change in this population .
- A comparison of the EQ5D-5L and EQ5D-3L in patients with Low Back Pain found that the 3L version presented with floor and ceiling limitations of the measure which led the authors to recommend the Eq5D-5L versions for this population. The also found significant correlations between the majority of dimensions of both the 5L and 3L versions and the Oswestry Disability Index 
References[edit | edit source]
- Pérez-Ros P, Martínez-Arnau FM. EQ-5D-3L for Assessing Quality of Life in Older Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairment. Life. 2020 Jul;10(7):100.
- Whynes DK, Tombola Group. Correspondence between EQ-5D health state classifications and EQ VAS scores. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2008 Dec 1;6(1):94.Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2588564/ (last accessed 10.6.20)
- Devlin NJ, Brooks R. EQ-5D and the EuroQol group: past, present and future. Applied health economics and health policy. 2017 Apr 1;15(2):127-37.Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5343080/ (last accessed 10.6.2020)
- Bhadhuri, Arjun, Paul Kind, Paola Salari, Katharina Tabea Jungo, Benoît Boland, Stephen Byrne, Stefanie Hossmann et al. "Measurement properties of EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L in recording self-reported health status in older patients with substantial multimorbidity and polypharmacy." Health and quality of life outcomes 18, no. 1 (2020): 1-17.
- Garratt, A. M., Håvard Furunes, Christian Hellum, Tore Solberg, Jens Ivar Brox, Kjersti Storheim, and Lars Gunnar Johnsen. "Evaluation of the EQ-5D-3L and 5L versions in low back pain patients." Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 19, no. 1 (2021): 1-9.
- McCaffrey N, Kaambwa B, Currow DC, Ratcliffe J. Health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D–5L: South Australian population norms. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2016 Dec;14(1):133. Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5028927/ (last accessed 10.6.2020)
- EuroQol Research FoundationExplaining the EQ 5D in about two-and-a-half minutes. Available fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qhZ6goeTSLI