Introduction[edit | edit source]
The Rehabilitation 2030: Call for Action draws attention to the profound unmet need for rehabilitation around the world. The initiative highlights the importance of strengthening health systems and integrating rehabilitation at all levels of care. There are 10 priorities for action in this initiative focused on leadership, planning, service delivery models, universal coverage, research, networks, partnerships, and strengthening a multidisciplinary workforce through education.
Strengthening the rehabilitation workforce through education requires an additional workforce, e.g. the academic faculty who will prepare the rehabilitation workforce to competently provide the services. There is a faculty shortage worldwide, especially in lower resourced regions where the rehabilitation professions may be newly developing. Thus, as the world acknowledges the need for rehabilitation services in health systems, the need for qualified educators to prepare the next generation of clinicians is greater than ever. While qualified educators are integral to continuing professional development and community engagement, the focus of this course is on educators as faculty in academic institutions, i.e. universities and colleges.
Like most organizations, academic institutions are hierarchically organized and have multiple layers of roles and responsibilities for faculty. It is important to note that academic faculty are not solely dedicated to teaching and learning; but they also embody the vision and mission of the programme and academic institution, have duties related to working and/or chairing institutional and programme committees, producing scholarly research, mentoring both students and other faculty, and providing service to professional organizations, associations, and communities. These widespread duties require faculty to have special skillsets beyond their entry-level degree qualifications for clinical practice. In general, most academic programmes will designate faculty roles as (1) programme Director, (2) Core Academic Faculty, (3) Associated Faculty, (4) Clinical Education Coordinator, (5) Clinical Education Faculty.
The responsibilities and qualifications of the various academic roles are usually provided by national and/or international professional associations and accreditation councils (ASHA-CAA, 2023; CAA, 2019; CAOT, 2019; IALP, 2009; ISPO, 2018; NCOPE, 2021; OTBNZ, 2015; OTCA, 2018; PEAC, 2021; PTBNZ, 2019; SPA, 2019; TESQA, 2021; WHO, 2005; WPT, 2021; WFOT, 2017). The following sections represent the summary of accreditation standards from around the world and across rehabilitation professions, including considerations for the roles and responsibilities, as well as examples of qualifying criteria for academic faculty. You can review the standards used to create this summary in the Sources Section below.
What faculty roles and responsibilities need to be considered for academic programmes?[edit | edit source]
Programme Director[edit | edit source]
The programme director (aka programme lead) typically demonstrates the academic and professional qualifications and relevant experience in higher education requisite for providing effective leadership for the programme, the programme faculty, and the students. The key roles for the programme director to consider include (but are not limited to):
- Promoting realistic strategic planning that is aligned to the vision and mission of the institution and profession
- Actively engaging in institutional and/or profession’s governance
- Effectively managing human and fiscal resources
- Communicating and negotiating for the benefit of the programme, including planning, budgeting, funding, programme faculty employment and termination, space, and appropriate academic and professional benefits, etc.
- Effectively managing conflict
- Assessing the education programme without bias
- Promoting and supporting the professional development of the faculty
- Understanding of and experience with curriculum content, design, and evaluation
- Engaging in active service on behalf of education, higher education, the larger community, and organizations related to their academic interest
Core Faculty[edit | edit source]
The core faculty are typically employed by the academic institution with most of their responsibilities assigned to the programme. The core faculty roles and responsibilities to consider include (but are not limited to):
- Plan, develop, deliver, and evaluate curriculum (classroom and laboratory)
- Establish academic regulations and to design, implement, and evaluate the curriculum
- Contribute to administrative/governance roles, including institution/programme governance and committee work and other education administration duties
- Coordinate and mentor associated faculty
- Advise and mentor students
- Evaluate expected student and programme outcomes
- Engage in scholarship activities
- Participate in service activities, including clinical practice, consultation, mentoring others, involvement in professional organizations, involvement in community organizations, etc.
- Maintain contemporary expertise through continuing professional development activities
Associated Faculty[edit | edit source]
The associated faculty have classroom and/or laboratory teaching responsibilities but are not core faculty. The associated faculty may include individuals with full-time appointments in the programme in which the professional programme resides or in other units of the institution, but who have primary responsibilities in programmes other than the professional programme. The associated faculty might also include individuals who are contracted to teach specific content areas in the classroom or laboratory. The associated faculty roles and responsibilities to consider include (but are not limited to):
- Deliver didactic and/or practical content (classroom and laboratory)
- Evaluate student performance
- Maintain contemporary expertise through continuing professional development activities
Clinical Education Coordinator[edit | edit source]
The clinical education coordinator (aka Fieldwork coordinator) directs the clinical education activities of the programme. The clinical education coordinator (CEC) maintains the full role of a core faculty member, but also has special roles and responsibilities, including (but not limited to):
- Develop, conduct, coordinate, and evaluate the clinical education component of the curriculum
- Maintain written agreements between the academic institution and clinical education site
- Maintain knowledge of clinical education professional regulations
- Engage with the academic and clinical community to inform the understanding of current practice patterns, effective CE practices, and determinants of health care delivery
- Lead core faculty who assume responsibilities for clinical education as part of their workload
- Communicate and coordinate the clinical education sites
- Communicate and prepare the clinical education faculty to effectively engage with students
Clinical Education Faculty[edit | edit source]
The clinical education faculty (aka practice educators, clinical instructors) are clinicians who teach the student in the clinical practice setting. While the academic programme may not employ these individuals, they do agree to certain standards of behavior through contractual arrangements for their services. They are typically in the same rehabilitation field as the student. Criteria to become a clinical education faculty will vary dependent upon profession and location. The clinical faculty roles and responsibilities to consider include (but are not limited to):
- Teach and evaluate students in the clinical practice setting
- Communicate with the clinical education coordinator in a timely manner
Collective Faculty[edit | edit source]
The collective faculty is the sum of all the faculty roles. The collective faculty needs to be sufficient in number and specialization to meet programme goals, expected programme outcomes, and to allow each faculty member to perform their responsibilities for teaching, scholarship, and service.
What criteria need to be considered when qualifying faculty for their assigned academic roles?[edit | edit source]
Qualifying academic faculty varies and is dependent upon their assigned roles and responsibilities. Qualifications for the various roles will vary by programme and profession, but areas that are frequently identified in accreditation criteria include: (1) Academic Degree (2) Designated Academic Rank, (2) Active Licensure, (3) Experience in Academia, (4) Experience in Clinical Practice, (5) Experience in Leadership, (6) Experience in Leadership, (7) Scholarship Agenda, (8) Contemporary knowledge and skills, (9) Effective teaching and learning skills, (10) Continuing Professional Development, and (11) Appointment type. Table 1 provides the general considerations for qualifying faculty for their roles in the rehabilitation professions.
Table 1. Summary of accreditation standards for qualifying academic faculty for a rehabilitation profession (ASHA-CAA, 2023; CAA, 2019; CAOT, 2019; IALP, 2009; ISPO, 2018; NCOPE, 2021; OTBNZ, 2015; OTCA, 2018; PEAC, 2021; PTBNZ, 2019; SPA, 2019; TESQA, 2021; WHO, 2005; WPT, 2021; WFOT, 2017).
|Qualification Consideration||Programme Director||Core Academic Faculty||Associated Faculty||Clinical Education Coordinator||Clinical Education Faculty|
|Designated Academic Degree||Doctoral (PhD, EdD, EdD, DSc, ScD); or at or 1degree level higher than degree||Dependent on the type of degree programme (entry-level versus post-entry level education); or based on policies established by the governing authorities for education; or can require specialization and certification in specific area of practice||Varies, but usually at least at degree programme level||Doctoral (clinical or academic)||Varies, but usually at least at degree programme level|
|Designated Academic Rank||Professor; or
Associate Professor; or specialty training like NCOPE online training for P&O
|Active Professional Licensure/Credentials^|
|Experience: Academia||Can be designated as 3+ or 6+ years|
|Experience: Clinical Practice||
Can be designated as 5+ or 8+ years
|Can be designated as 1+ or 3+ years||Often a designated number of years: 2+-4+ years||A designated minimum number of years of clinical practice and/or clinical competence|
|Experience: Leadership||Organizational, interpersonal, problem-solving, and counseling skills|
|Experience: Administration||Demonstrated effectiveness in developing, conducting, and coordinating a clinical education programme|
|Active Service*||Active service and consultation related to teaching areas|
|Contemporary knowledge and skills||Specific to assigned teaching content||Specific to assigned teaching content|
|Effective teaching and learning skills||Clinical teaching effectiveness; Effectiveness as a role model|
|Continuing Professional Development||Specific to assigned teaching content||Specific to assigned teaching content||(might include completion of clinical educator training/certification)|
|Appointment/Tenure||Full-Time and/or Tenured||Varies||Full-Time and/or Tenured|
What do I do with this information?[edit | edit source]
The faculty roles, responsibilities, and qualifications for academic programmes will be influenced by regional contexts and needs, type of rehabilitation profession, academic institution governance, rules and regulations of legislative bodies, and professional associations. It does not matter if the academic programme is developing or is well-established. It is vital that there are thoughtful plans for recruiting and employing faculty who not only have the necessary skills and qualifications, but also embody the mission and vision of the programme and academic institution. So, reflect on what needs to be considered when establishing the roles, responsibilities, and qualifications for the academic programme; Establish guidelines for the expected roles, responsibilities, and qualifications; Confirm that the guidelines meet the programme’s needs; Create an amazing collective faculty that will meet the needs of the programme, institution, and community.
Sources[edit | edit source]
This is a list of accreditation standards from around the world and across rehabilitation professions that were used to create this article.
- Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education Standards and Interpretive Guide: August 2022 Interpretive Guide Version
- Guidelines for accreditation of entry-level physiotherapy practitioner programs of study V1.2
- Higher Education Standards Framework (Threshold Standrds0 2021
- Academic accreditation standards and self-study guide (2019)
- Standards for institutional licensure program accreditation
- Standards for accreditation of baccalaureate and graduate nursing programs
- Standards and requirements for accreditation of physical therapist education programs.
- Standards for accreditation of graduate education programs in audiology and speech-language pathology.
- Revised IALP Guidelines for Initial Education in Speech Language Pathology.
- ISPO education standards for prosthetic/orthotic occupations. 
- Standards of accreditation for the orthotic/prosthetic residency training program.
- Accreditation standards with process guide: For entry-level occupational therapy education programs.
- Accreditation standards for Australian entry-level occupational therapy education programs.
- Accreditation standard for physiotherapy practitioner programmes in Aotearoa New Zealand.
- The 2020 Accreditation Standards for Canadian Entry-to-Practice Physiotherapy Education Programs.
- Learning and development standards for pre-registration education: revised edition 2019. 
- Accreditation of speech pathology degree programs: Part B: Reporting requirements and core standards.
- Advice for the establishment of a new entry-level programme for the education of occupational therapists. 
- Physiotherapist education framework.
References[edit | edit source]
- World Health Organization (WHO). Rehabilitation 2023: Call for Action. Geneva, Switzerland: 2017. Available from https://www.who.int/initiatives/rehabilitation-2030
- World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for training personnel in developing countries for prosthetics and orthotics services. Scotland, United Kingdom: 2005.
- Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE). 2018 Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education Standards and Interpretive Guide: August 2022 Interpretive Guide Version. [Internet] Bethesda, MD: 2020 July 31. [Cited 2023 January 12. Available from https://acoteonline.org/accreditation-explained/standards/
- Australian Physiotherapy Council, Limited (APC). Guidelines for accreditation of entry-level physiotherapy practitioner programs of study V1.2. [Internet]. [Cited January 23. 2023]. Available from www.physiocouncil.com.au.
- Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA). Higher Education Standards Framework (Threshold Standrds0 2021. [Internet] Australian Government: 2021. [Cited 2023 January 20]. Available from https://www.teqsa.gov.au/how-we-regulate/higher-education-standards-framework-2021
- Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT). Academic accreditation standards and self-study guide (2019). [Internet] Ottawa, Ontario: 2019. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://caot.in1touch.org/uploaded/web/Accreditation/CAOT%20Accreditation%20Self%20Study%20Guide%202017%20English%20rv%202019.pdf
- Commission for Academic Accreditation (CAA). Standards for institutional licensure program accreditation. [Internet]. United Arab Emirates: 2019. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://www.caa.ae/PORTALGUIDELINES/Standards%202019%20-%20Dec%202019%20v2.docx.pdf
- Commission on collegiate nursing education (CCNE). Standards for accreditation of baccalaureate and graduate nursing programs. CCNE: 2018. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/CCNE/PDF/Standards-Final-2018.pdf
- Commission on the Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE). Standards and requirements for accreditation of physical therapist education programs. [Internet]. Alexandria, VA: 2020. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://www.capteonline.org/globalassets/capte-docs/capte-pt-standards-required-elements.pdf
- Council on Academic Accreditation (ASHA-CAA). Standards for accreditation of graduate education programs in audiology and speech-language pathology. [Internet]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: 2017 August, Revised 2023. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://caa.asha.org/siteassets/files/accreditation-standards-for-graduate-programs.pdf
- International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics (IALP). Revised IALP Guidelines for Initial Education in Speech Language Pathology. (IALP, 2009). [Internet, Cited 2023 January 12] Available from https://ialpasoc.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Revised-IALP-Guidelines-for-Initial-Education-of-SLT.pdf
- International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics (ISPO). ISPO education standards for prosthetic/orthotic occupations. [Internet]. ISPO: 2018.[Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://www.ispoint.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/ispo_standards_nov2018_sprea.pdf
- National Commission on Orthotic and Prosthetic Education (NCOPE). Standards of accreditation for the orthotic/prosthetic residency training program. NCOPE: 1993, revised 2021.[Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://ncope.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Residency-Standards-Dec-2021-Revision.pdf
- Occupational Therapy Board of New Zealand (OTBNZ). Accreditation standards with process guide: For entry-level occupational therapy education programs. Wellington, New Zealand: 2015 August. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://www.otboard.org.nz/document/4909/Accreditation-Standards_with-Process-Guidelines-.pdf
- Occupational Therapy Council of Australia Ltd. (OTCA). Accreditation standards for Australian entry-level occupational therapy education programs. [Internet]. South Perth, WA. December 2018. [Cited 12023 January 12]. Available from https://www.otcouncil.com.au/wp-content/uploads/OTC-Accred-Stds-Dec2018-effective-Jan2020.pdf
- Physiotherapy Board of New Zealand (PTBNZ). Accreditation standard for physiotherapy practitioner programmes in Aotearoa New Zealand. [Internet]. Wellington, New Zealand: 2019 August. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://www.physioboard.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Accreditation-Standard-August-2019.pdf
- Physiotherapy Education Accreditation Canada (PEAC). The 2020 Accreditation Standards for Canadian Entry-to-Practice Physiotherapy Education Programs. [Internet] London, ON: 2021. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://peac-aepc.ca/pdfs/Accreditation/Accreditation%20Standards/Accreditation-Standards-for-Canadian-Entry-to-Practice-Physiotherapy-Education-Programs-(2020).pdf
- Royal College of Occupational Therapists (RCOT). Learning and development standards for pre-registration education: revised edition 2019. [Internet] London, United Kingdom, 2019 (republished with amendments 2022). [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://www.rcot.co.uk/practice-resources/rcot-publications/learning-and-development-standards-pre-registration-education
- Speech Pathology Australia (SPA). Accreditation of speech pathology degree programs: Part B: Reporting requirements and core standards. [Internet] Speech Pathology Association of Australia: 2019. [Cited 2023 January 12]. Available from https://www.speechpathologyaustralia.org.au/SPAweb/Resources_for_the_Public/University_Programs/Accreditation_Process/SPAweb/Resources_for_the_Public/University_Programs/Process.aspx?hkey=0917ee72-6b04-4479-9f51-7c7b89926539#guide
- World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). Advice for the establishment of a new entry-level programme for the education of occupational therapists. 2017. Available from https://wfot.org/resources/eqap-education-programmes-quality-assurance-package-educational-monitoring-zip-folder
- World Physiotherapy (WPT). Physiotherapist education framework. London, UK: World Physiotherapy; 2021. Available from https://world.physio/sites/default/files/2021-07/Physiotherapist-education-framework-FINAL.pdf ).