Hawkins / Kennedy Test
This test is commonly used to identify possible subacromial impingement syndrome.
The examiner places the patient's arm shoulder in 90 degrees of shoulder flexion with the elbow flexed to 90 degrees and then internally rotates the arm. The test is considered to be positive if the patient experiences pain with internal rotation.
|Sensitivity||0.62 - 0.92|
|Specificity||0.25 - 1.00|
|Positive Likelihood Ratio||1.20 - 3.33|
|Negative Likelihood Ratio||0.21 - 0.55|
Test Item Cluster:
When this test is combined as a cluster with the Painful Arc Sign and the Infraspinatus test, and all three tests report a positive, then the positive likelihood ratio is 10.56 and if all three tests are negative, the negative likelihood ratio is .17. If two of the three tests are positive, then the positive likelihood ratio is 5.03.
See test diagnostics page for explanation of statistics.
Recent Related Research (from Pubmed)
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- ↑ Flynn, T.W., Cleland, J.A., Whitman, J.M. (2008). User's guide to the musculoskeletal examination: Fundamentals for the evidence-based clinician. Buckner, Kentucky: Evidence in Motion
- ↑ online video, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2mSv7gLXyYg&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;feature=channel, last accessed 1/22/09
- ↑ Dutton, M. (2008). Orthopaedic: Examination, evaluation, and intervention (2nd ed.). New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
- ↑ Park, H.B., Yokota, A., Gill, H.S., EI RG, McFarland, E.G. (2005). Diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests for the different degrees of subacromial impingement syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 87(7), 1446-1455.
In this month's Members topic we are exploring the foot and ankle with a focus on achilles tendinopathy. This month we have exclusive access to:
- 2 FREE chapters from text books Maitland's Peripheral Manipulation by Hengeveld & Banks 2014 and A Practical Approach to Orthopaedic Medicine by Atkins, Kerr and Goodlad. 2010
- 4 FREE journal articles from The Foot
- An interview with Maitland expert Elly Hengeveld