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Pain control and modulation is a complex chore that is often the primary reason patients seek the services of rehabilitation professionals. Modulation of pain begins with an understanding of the various levels of pain modulation and extends to clinical interventions and protocols designed to reduce pain.
Levels of Pain Modulation
Pain modulation is easily classified into 5 discreet levels of interaction. These levels correspond to either important synaptic junctions, or significant chemical processes involved in the trasmission of pain.
Level 1: Periphery
Level 1 pain modulation refers to events acting in the periphery of the body, at the source of the pain source.
Level 2: Dorsal Horn
Level 2 pain modulation refers to events in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. It is here where the Gate Theory of Pain comes into play.
Level 3: Fast Neuronal Descending Pathways
Level 4: Hormonal
Level 5: Cortical
Ageing and Parkinson's Disease
In this month's Members topic we are developing our understanding of ageing and Parkinson's Disease. This month we have exclusive access to:
- 6 FREE chapters from text books Geriatric Physical Therapy edited by Andrew Guccione, Rita Wong & Dale Avers 2014 and A Comprehensive Guide to Geriatric Rehabilitation edited by Timothy Kauffman, Ronald Scott, John Barr & Michael Moran. 2014
- 2 FREE journal articles from Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
- 3 related quizzes to test your knowledge