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Pain control and modulation is a complex chore that is often the primary reason patients seek the services of rehabilitation professionals. Modulation of pain begins with an understanding of the various levels of pain modulation and extends to clinical interventions and protocols designed to reduce pain.
Levels of Pain Modulation
Pain modulation is easily classified into 5 discreet levels of interaction. These levels correspond to either important synaptic junctions, or significant chemical processes involved in the trasmission of pain.
Level 1: Periphery
Level 1 pain modulation refers to events acting in the periphery of the body, at the source of the pain source.
Level 2: Dorsal Horn
Level 2 pain modulation refers to events in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. It is here where the Gate Theory of Pain comes into play.
Level 3: Fast Neuronal Descending Pathways
Level 4: Hormonal
Level 5: Cortical
Learn about the knee in this month's members learn topic with book chapters including D. Magee 2014: Orthopedic Physical Assessment