Original Editors - Charlotte Fastenaekels
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Capnography is a non-invasive measurement during inspiration and expiration of the partial pressure of CO2 from the airway. It provides physiologic information on ventilation, perfusion, and metabolism, which is important for airway management.
End-tidal CO2 or EtCO2 is the maximum partial pressure of CO2 obtained at the end of exhalation. While a capnometer reports numeric values as a result, a capnograph adds a graphic display of a waveform, which represents expired CO2 as a function to either volume or time. And the created waveform is referred to as capnogram.
Indications for Use
This technique allows insight into the alveolar ventilation, perfusion and metabolism of breathing. On top of the use of validity for the measured level of EtCO2, it gives us two main advantages. Firstly, The appropriate tracing/mark on a pulse oximeter guarantees us that the recorded oxygen saturation provided is valid. Secondly, the evaluation of the provided waveform gives us key information about latent, underlying physiologic conditions and the ongoing processes of diseases.
Capnometry is a non-invasive monitoring technique. It allows quick and reliable insight into aspects like: ventilation, circulation, and metabolism. In diagnosis, monitoring, and prediction of outcome capnometry is an important tool, especially in the prehospital setting.
The Future of Capnography
Capnography and the measurement of PETCO2 will be augmented in the future by relatively new measurement methodology. Including the study of oxygen kinetics as a future direction. 
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Clinical Bottom Line
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Recent Related Research (from Pubmed)
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- Naso-enteric Tube Placement: A Review of Methods to Confirm Tip Location, Global Applicability and Requirements.
- What Factors Influence Community Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons' Choice to Use Capnography in the Office-Based Ambulatory Anesthesia Setting?
- Monitoring during difficult airway management.
- ↑ Joshua Nagler,MD, Baruch Krauss, MD. Capnography: A Valuable Tool fot Airway Managemant. Emerg Med Clin N Am 26 (2008) 881-897 (A1)
- ↑ Dejan Kupnik, Pavel Skok. Capnometry in the prehospital setting: are we using its potential? Emerg Med J 2007;24:614–617. doi: 10.1136/emj.2006.044081 (A1)
- ↑ Cynthia T Anderson and Peter H Breen. Carbon dioxide kinetics and capnography during critical care. Crit Care2000, 4:207–215 (A1)
- ↑ Adam Thompson. EtCO2: Capnography Part 1. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mw27u6dBek [last accessed 22/02/13]
- ↑ Adam Thompson. EtCO2: Capnography Part 2. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8sRBQZ_ky0 [last accessed 22/02/13]
Evidence Based Practice
Learn about Evidence Based Practice in this month's members learn topic with book chapters from Practical Evidence-Based Physiotherapy 2012 & Evidence-Based Practice Across the Health Professions 2013