4-Item Pain Intensity Measure (P4)
The P4 consists of 4 items that address pain intensity in the morning, afternoon, evening, and with activity over the past 2 days. Each item is scored on a 0-to-10 NPRS, therefore the total P4 scores can vary from 0 (no pain) to 40 (the highest possible pain level). Most patients can complete the P4 in less than a minute and clinicians can score the measure in 5 seconds without the use of computational aids.
The purpose of developing this questionnaire was to attempt assessing change better than the two difference versions of a single-item NPRS.
Those over the age of 16 with non-chronic musculoskeletal pain. It has also been shown to be valid when used in conjunction with the WOMAC in people with osteoarthritis awaiting total knee or total hip replacements.
Method of Use
Patients are asked to circle a single number that corresponds to their pain at each time of day and with activity over the previous 2 days. The numbers are then totaled to yield a score out of 40.
Test-retest reliability = 0.78
Longitudinal validity = 0.63 and 0.57 between the retrospective rating of change and the P4 and 24-hour NPRS (z = 1.73, P1 = .043), and 0.61 and 0.56 between the retrospective rating of change and the P4 and 2-day NPRS (z = 2.53, P1 = .006), respectively.
MDC90 = 9.1 points or 22.2% of the scale range
Recent Related Research (from Pubmed)
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- Spadoni GF, Stratford PW, Solomon PE, Wishart LR. The Evaluation of Change in Pain Intensity: A Comparison of the P4 and Single-Item Numeric Pain Rating Scales. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 2004: 34(4): 187-93.
- Stratford PW, Dogra M, Woodhouse L, Kennedy DM, Spadoni GF. Validating Self-Report Measures of Pain and Function in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty. Physiother Can, 2009: 61; 189-194.